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■VOL. III. 



FEBRUARY, 1882. 



The Glory of God is Intelligence. 



No. 5. 



THE 



f 
I 




A Monthly Magazine of Home Literature. 



REPRESENTS 



THE YOUNG MEN'S AND YOUNG LADIES' MUTUAL IMPROVEMENT 
ASSOCIATIONS OF THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 



EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY JUNIUS F. WELLS. 



SAI/T LAKE CITY, FTAII. 



THE CONTRIBUTOR. 

CONTENTS FOR FEBRUARY, 1882. 

PAGE. 

Sermons and Writings of the Prophet Joseph. V. Redemption and Election • 129 

Mormon Polygamy and Christian Monogamy. II Moses 'J hatcher 130 

Child Training Ten 133 

Objections to the Book of Mormon. Ill Geo. Reynolds 134 

Impure Castes , Wm. Fathering/mm 137 

The Origin of Man. Rev. Plato Johnson 139 

Association History. Weber County. II ; E.H.Anderson 140 

Death of Mozart 143 

Religion at Home H. W. Naisbitt 109 

Otters St. Nicholas 144 

The Echo Canon War. IV Vaux 146 

Formation of Soil •. J. B. Toronto 149 

Apostacy Matthias F. Cowley 151 

Retrospection.. Enimeline B. Wells 153 

Editorial: Memorials to Congress 154 

In Memoriam — Elizabeth Ann Whitney Louie Wells 156 

Hindoo Fable 158 

Association Intelligence: 

Quarterly Conference 159 

Answers to Questions 159 

Questions to Answer 160 





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THE CONTRIBUTOR 



The Glory of God is Intelligeiice. 



Vol. III. 



FEBRUARY, 1882. 



No. 5. 



SERMONS AND WRITINGS OF THE PROPHET JOSEPH. 



REDEMPTION AND ELECTION. 

At 10 o'clock a.m., a large concourse 
of the Saints assembled on the meeting 
ground, and were addressed by Presi- 
dent Joseph Smith, who spoke at con- 
siderable length. 

He commenced his observations by 
remarking, that the kindness of our 
Heavenly Father called for our heartfelt 
gratitude. He then observed, that Satan 
was generally blamed for the evils which 
we did, but if he was the cause of all 
our wickedness, men could not be con- 
demned. The devil cannot compel man- 
kind to do evil; all was voluntary. 
Those who resist the Spirit of God are 
liable to be led into temptation, and then 
the association of heaven is withdrawn 
from those who refuse to be made par- 
takers of such great glory. God would 
not exert any compulsory means, and 
the devil could not; and such ideas as 
were entertained by many were absurd. 
The creature was made subject to vanity, 
not willingly, but Christ subjected the 
same in hope — we are all subject to 
vanity while we travel through the 
crooked paths and difficulties which 
surround us. Where is the man that is 
free from vanity? None ever were per- 
fect but Jesus; and why was he perfect? 
Because he was the Son of God, and 
had the fulness of the Spirit, and greater 
power than any man. But notwithstand- 
ing our vanity, we look forward with 
hope (because "we are subjected in 
hope") to the time of our deliverance. 

He then made some observations on 

the first principles of the Gospel, observ- 

5 



ing, that many of the Saints who had 
come from different states and nations 
had only a very superficial knowledge of 
these principles, not having heard them 
fully investigated. 

He then briefly stated the principles 
of faith, repentance, and baptism for the 
remission of sins, which were believed 
by some of the righteous societies of the 
day, but the doctrine of the laying on of 
hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost 
was discarded by them. 

The speaker referred to Hebrews, 
sixth chapter, first and second verses; 
"Therefore leaving the principles of the 
doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto per- 
fection; not laying again the foundation 
of repentance from dead works, and of 
faith toward God, of the doctrine of 
baptisms, and the laying on of hands, 
and of resurrection of the dead, and 
of eternal judgment." That the doc- 
trine of eternal judgment was perfectly 
understood by the Apostles, is evident 
from several passages of Scripture. 
Peter preached repentance and baptism 
for the remission of sins to the Jews, 
who had been led to acts of violence and 
blood by their leaders; but to the rulers 
he said, "I would that through ignorance 
ye did it, as did also those ye ruled" 
"Repent, therefore, and be converted, 
that your sins may be blotted out, when 
the times of refreshing (redemption) 
shall come from the presence of the 
Lord, for He shall send Jesus Christ, 
who before was preached unto you," 
etc. The time of redemption here had 
reference to the time when Christ should 
come; then, and not till then, would 



130 MORMON POL YGAMY AND CHRISTIAN MONOGAMY. 



their sins be blotted out. Why? Be- 
cause they were murderers, and no mur- 
derer hath eternal life. Even David 
must wait for those times of refreshing, 
before he can come forth and his sins be 
blotted out. For Peter, speaking of him 
says, "David hath not yet ascended into 
heaven, for his sepulchre is with us to 
this day." His remains were then in 
the tomb. Now, we read that many of 
the Saints arose at Christ's resurrection, 
probably all the Saints, but it seems that 
David did not. Why? Because he had 
been a murderer. If the ministers of 
religion had a proper understanding of 
the doctrine of eternal judgment, they 
would not be found attending the man 
who had forfeited his life to the injured 
laws of his country, by shedding in- 
nocent blood; for such characters 
cannot be forgiven, until they have 
paid the last farthing. The prayers of 
all the ministers in the world could 
never close the gates of hell against a 
murderer. 

He then spoke on the subject of elec- 
tion, and read the ninth chapter of Ro- 
mans, from which it was evident that 
the election there spoken of was pertain- 
ing to the flesh, and had reference to the 
seed of Abraham, according to the 



promise of God to Abraham, saying, "In 
thee, and in thy seed, all the families of 
the earth shall be blessed." To them 
belonged the adoption and the covenants, 
etc. Paul said, when he saw their un- 
belief, I wish myself accursed — accord- 
ing to the flesh — not according to the 
spirit. Why did God say to Pharaoh, 
"For this cause have I raised thee up?" 
Because Pharaoh was a fit instrument — 
a wicked man, and had committed acts 
of cruelty of the most atrocious nature. 
The election of the promised seed still 
continues, and in the last days they shall 
have the Priesthood restored to them, 
and they shall be the "saviors on Mount 
Zion," the ministers of our God: if it 
were not for the remnant which was left, 
then might we be as Sodom and Gomor- 
rah. The whole of the chapter had 
reference to the Priesthood and the 
house of Israel; and unconditional elec- 
tion of individuals to eternal life was not 
taught by the Apostles. God did elect 
or predestinate, that all those who would 
be saved, should be saved in Jesus 
Christ, and through obedience to the 
Gospel; but He passes over no man's 
sins, but visits them with correction, and 
if His children will not repent of their 
sins He will discard them. 



MORMON POLYGAMY AND CHRISTIAN MONOGAMY. 



To show how well founded are the 
views so cogently expressed in the last 
paragraph of the last number, we make 
the following extracts from an eminent 
work on "The Transmission of Life," by 
George H. Napheys, A. M.,M. D., pub- 
lished by H. C. Watts & Co., Philadel- 
phia, 1878. This work is approved and 
endorsed by many of the most eminent 
medical professors of our day, as well as 
by those of our noted colleges, universi- 
ties and institutions of learning, and by 
prominent clergymen and Christian 
advocates of several Protestant denom- 
inations. It may, therefore, be consid- 
ered a reliable exponent of matters upon 
which it treats, as existing among the 



people of the United States, who, since 
the passage of the Congressional act of 
1862, against polygamy in the territories 
of the Union, may be considered em- 
phatically a nation of Christian mono- 
gamists. 

With this explanation, we shall pro- 
ceed to point out some of the results of 
this approved monogamic system of mar- 
riage, and will compare them with those 
thus far developed by the "Mormon" 
practice of polygamy, or, more properly 
speaking, the patriarchial system of mar- 
riage, as practised by the Latter-day 
Saints in the Territory of Utah; or, to 
put the comparison in another and per- 
haps more proper light, for we disclaim 
any disposition to assume a basis of 



MORMON POLYGAMY AND CHRISTIAN MONOGAMY. 



131 



unfairness, we will say; not the re- 
sults flowing from the two orders of 
marriage, but rather the good and evil 
which accompany them. 

We need only consult the writings of 
our best American authors, who have 
made the subject of the so-called "social 
evil" a matter of study, to learn that this 
fearful scourge, this horrid uncleanness, 
is gaining strength and assuming greater 
proportions every year in our otherwise 
great and happy country. This startling 
truth has become so apparent to thought- 
ful men of the nation, that they unhesi-' 
tatingly declare that it is not only poison- 
ing the fountains of life in the great com- 
mercial centres of the land ; but reaches, 
with the taint of disease and death, the 
heretofore quiet, chaste and moral walks 
of villages, hamlets and country re- 
treats. With the power of steam, and 
the speed of electricity, its wondrous 
strides threaten the very existence of the 
nation. If any doubt this, let them care- 
fully study the subject and, taking the 
Bible, or science, or both as a standard, 
compare the morality of the United 
States to-day, both as to expressions of 
public thought and actual practices, with 
those of fifty, or even twenty-five years 
ago, and, I think no further argument 
will be necessary to convince all such 
that the statement, while being a sad 
commentary upon our Christian nation, 
is, nevertheless, true. 

Congress may pass proscriptive laws in 
the future, as it has done in the past, to 
place restrictions upon the heaven ap- 
proved system of patriarchal marriage, 
enforcing punishment by fines and im- 
prisonment on those who obey that life- 
promoting doctrine; but it remains to be 
seen whether our law-makers will be will- 
ing, or able, to enact measures even to 
check the fast increasing current of a 
nation's corruption. We fear not, be- 
lieving that their hearts are not inclined 
toward the work of moral and physi- 
cal regeneration. Our apprehensions 
in this direction arise from causes well 
known, among which we need only 
refer to a few prominent cases wherein 
the nation and the people have shown 
an indifference to morality, which twenty- 



five years ago, would have shocked them 
in every grade of society from New 
York on the Atlantic to San Francisco 
on the Pacific; from British America 
on the north to the Gulf and boundary 
of Mexico on the south. 

Passing the unfortunate and sadly dis- 
graceful affairs in which, during the past 
few years, some of the most brilliant cler- 
gymen and ministers of our nation have, 
unhappily, been prominently connected 
as leading actors, in scenes and acts of 
lewdness, which should make a heathen 
blush, we will but refer to similar affairs 
in the field of politics; in which parties 
of the highest political consequence were 
interested. Ask how far these disgrace- 
ful matters affect the social or political 
standing of such persons and what 
would the answer be? Should every 
charge made against these brilliant char- 
acters be fully substantiated, would that, 
in the present apathetic condition of our 
nation, as to morality, dim their great- 
ness, or in any way retard the strides 
made by certain ones toward the most 
distinguished places and positions in the 
gift of the government? On the contrary, 
these affairs have increased rather than 
diminished the popularity of the parties 
concerned among the people. In view 
of the practices of prominent law-makers 
who, it is well known, keep domestic 
establishments at the seat of government 
during congressional sessions while their 
wives are at home, we may well ask 
why should adultery or any other im- 
moral act tarnish the character or cloud 
the prospects of one or more particular 
special lights of the great political par- 
ties? It would be invidious. Should 
the good, slow going, Christian people of 
the nation consider any act of a public 
official servant too flagrantly immoral to 
be covered by the veil of religious hy- 
pocrisy, all that need be done to distract 
attention is to unite the clerical, Phari- 
saical element of the country to cry out 
against the "abominable" practices of the 
"Mormons" in far distant Utah; who, 
instead of prostituting the daughters ot 
God, marry them; and, instead of bas- 
tardizing and permitting their children to 
be destroyed, care for, protect and ed- 



132 



MORMON POLYGAMY AND CHRISTIAN MONOGAMY. 



ucate them; which, of course, being just, 
and approved of by the Almighty, is 
called a "national dishonor." 

This brings to mind an instance where 
a religious sect employed, at a good, 
round salary, a new minister, the old one 
having continued to cry out against in- 
iquity in his fold, as was his habit in 
youth, and, being considered, therefore, 
behind the spirit of the age, was dis- 
charged, the congregation feeling that 
when they paid for preaching, they 
should have such as suited them. So, 
when the new minister came, he was met 
at the vestry door, just before the com- 
mencement of the services, by a couple 
of the prominent members of the reli- 
gious society; the first, with a pleasant 
smile and cheerful greeting, requested 
him not to preach about the evils arising 
from the use of intoxicating drinks, nor 
yet to condemn their sale: "for," said 
he, "Mr. Brown is prominently engaged 
in that business and is a very respecta- 
ble member of our society, and is really 
more than ordinarily generous, having, 
since we employed you, given the church 
five hundred dollars." The other mod- 
estly requested that nothing be said 
about prostitution, or houses of assig- 
nation, as Mr. Smith, a very prominent 
church member, owned a block of build- 
ings, some of the houses of which were 
leased profitably to characters that were 
not irreproachable, but Mr. Smith him- 
self is, nevertheless, an excellent Chris- 
tian; last year he gave three hundred dol- 
lars to help our cause in Mexico and two 
hundred dollars for Africa, and, since 
our former minister left us, he has do- 
nated to the church one thousand dollars 
in cash. "Well." replied the new em- 
ploye, "if I dare not mention the iniqui- 
ties and sins existing among the people, 
what can I preach about?" "Oh, that's 
easy; go after the "Mormons" red hot; 
they have no friends." With a sigh of 
relief the services were opened and con- 
ducted satisfactorily to all — the minister 
understanding very clearly that he was 
"preaching for hire and divining for 
money," while the officials of the Chris- 
tian society were greatly pleased in se- 
curing the services of a teacher to "tickle 



the itching ears of the people," who, in 
turn, were delighted with the harmony 
secured. 

Having thus briefly alluded to public 
men and public affairs, we now submit 
for the careful consideration of the 
reader, the following extracts from the 
celebrated work of Dr. Napheys. Speak- 
ing of secret diseases and their fre- 
qency and effects, he says: "A masked 
pestilence, a subtle infection is stealing 
upon the health of the nation, poisoning 
its blood and shortening its life, spread- 
ing from husband to wife, from parent to 
offspring, from nurse to infant, working 
slowly, but with a fatal and an inexorable 
certainty. This pestilence is the spe- 
cific contagion of disease, which arises 
from impure intercourse. Were this its 
only source, and did it stay its ravages 
with the guilty parties, we might say it is 
a just penalty, and calls for little sym- 
pathy. But this is not so. By the in- 
scrutable law of God, which decrees that 
the sins of the father shall be vis- 
ited on the children, even unto the third 
and fourth generations, these diseases 
work attainder of blood, become heredi- 
tary and blight the offspring." * * 
"Not a single physician of experience 
who has not witnessed wife and children 
poisoned by the husband's infidelity." 
Here again we fear we shall be called 
alarmists, and severely criticized for ex- 
citing unnecessary apprehension. We 
care not. This is no imaginary evil we 
combat, nor is it any paltry or insignifi- 
cant one. We do but repeat with mod- 
erated emphasis, what others have al- 
ready said. We have before us a work 
which is anything but sensational, and 
which was written by men who stand 
second to none in our land for profes- 
sional and personal character. It is the 
Fifth Annual Report of the Board of 
State Charities of Massachusetts (1868). 
The Board, speaking of that hideous 
disease which must have come from the 
most venomous fang of the serpent which 
bit the heel of mankind, and they go on 
to say: 

"Woe to the bodily tabernacle in which 
it enters; for it is one of those evil spir- 
its which not even prayer and fasting 



CHILD TRAINING. 



133 



can cast out. With slow, painless, in- 
sidious, resistless march, it penetrates 
into the very marrow of the bones and 
poisons the fountains of life beyond pur- 
ification. All may look fair without 
and feel fair within, but the taint is there 
and it affects the offspring. The effects 
of the disorder in corrupting the human 
stock and predisposing offspring to dis- 
ease are more deadly than is usually be- 
lieved. They are hardly exceeded by 
the effects of alcohol. Nature readily 
forgives unto men other sins and blas- 
phemies, wherewithsoever they may 
blaspheme, but the one, like him that 
blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit, 
hath never forgiveness, but is in danger 
of eternal damnation, for he hath an un- 
clean spirit," 

"And this is said, be it remembered, 
in a public document for general distri- 
bution. Can we then be blamed if we 
remove, without compunction, the veil 
which hides the hideous features of the 
malady?" * * » "We would 
gladly add, to counterbalance what we 
have to say on this point, that such mal- 
adies are rare. But who would believe 
it? Is it not notorious that there is no 
hamlet so remote, no frontier settlement 
so isolated that it is free of this scourge? 
In the great cities it is fearfully preva- 
lent. Including both sexes and all grades 
of society, we do not doubt that more 
than twenty-five per cent, of their whole 
population is more or less tainted with 
it, and the greater number innocently. 
Nor is it at all confined to the indigent 
and degraded. Its hold is just as firm, 
though concealed and held in check, in 
the fashionable clubs and stately man- 
sions of the opulent, as in the alleys and 
back slums of the dregs of our popula- 
tion. No man, no woman, we care not 
what his position or his life may be, is 
secure from its loathsome touch." 

Moses Thatcher. 



CHILD TRAINING. 

Education is the development of the 

physical, mental and spiritual nature of a 

child; its object is to give the body and 

spirit all the perfections of which they 



are susceptible. During earliest infancy 
we know only of the physical nature, we 
have but little evidence of the spiritual 
or mental life of the child until its 
strength and growth awakens the senses 
and by their use evinces its intellectual 
powers. 

The dawning of these powers, in the 
very morning of life, is usually dis- 
cerned in the affectionate nature of the 
little one, as in its love for its mother or 
others, who are kind and gentle in their 
attentions to it. Nothing appeals to the 
responsive nature of a true woman like 
the love prattle of a little child. It is 
the first evidence of that which is highest 
in its nature, and is called spiritual. 

Begin to educate a child by developing 
its senses. Too many having children 
in their care never think of this; they 
believe they do their duty in teaching them 
to discern letters. See that your first 
efforts are directed to the growth and 
cultivation of the senses. Let your child 
learn to see aright and all there is to be 
seen in a given direction, to hear aright 
and all that it should hear, to taste, to 
smell and to feel as though there were 
pleasure and satisfaction in the exercise 
of these faculties. Impressions thus 
made will be indellible, and if correct, 
form the foundations of a happy and 
useful life. They should be so thorough as 
to be a guide and help to your child in 
thought and action all his life, giving him 
a consciousness of power to appreciate 
all he comes in contact with, and to view 
things in their proper light, valuing them, 
for what they are worth. 

These impressions should be given 
slowly — indeed they can be made thor- 
ough no other way — and in accordance 
with the laws of nature, producing a 
growth from within of those germs of per- 
fection, which God has implanted there, 
and which testify stronger than the 
creeds of men of our divine parentage. 

Mental growth — Intelligence exists, 
existing it must exert itself, exerting 
itself it must grow strong, strengthening 
it must unfold, unfolding it imitates, 
represents, creates, creating it reaches 
consciousness. The starting point and 
the end is action. Play is the rightful 



134 



OBJECTIONS TO THE BOOK OF MORMON. 



work of the child, and it should be so 
directed that while it seems only pleasure 
to the child, from the teacher's stand- 
point, it has a direct educational object: 
being to give the child employment in 
harmony with his whole nature; to 
strengthen his body; to exercise his 
senses and to provide food for the growth 
of his mind; and to guide aright the 
heart and affections. The school should 
be a place of loveliness and activity. 
The individuality of the child should be 
held sacred, and freedom given to it that 



will reveal its powers and impulses, 
which must be guided or restrained by 
the love and experience of the teacher. 

Ten. 



The Feegeeans suppose the road to 
heaven too difficult for the infirm or 
diseased; therefore they strangle their 
old people, who, after cheerfully walking 
in their own funeral processions, submit 
to the operation with the utmost compos- 
ure. 



OBJECTIONS TO THE BOOK OF MORMON. 



in. 

Objection: "The Book of Mormon 
disagrees with the Bible ; for in the Book 
of Alma it is stated, And behold, he 
(Jesus) shall be born of Mary at Jeru- 
salem. " 

This quotation is a dishonest one, from 
the fact that it only gives a portion of the 
text, and ends in the middle of a sen- 
tence. It is like a certain man's argu- 
ment, who affirmed that he could prove 
from the Bible that there was no God; 
and to substantiate his assertion, quoted 
a portion of the opening sentence of the 
fourteenth psalm, "There is no God." 
But the sentence in its completeness 
reads, " The fool hath said in his heart, 
there is no God," which entirely changes 
the sentiment and meaning of the pas- 
sage. So this quotation from the Book 
of Alma, is greatly changed when the 
context is read. It is as follows; " And 
behold, he shall be born of Mary at Jeru- 
salem, which is the land of our fore- 
fathers." Showing that it is the country, 
not the city, that is referred to. 

If this statement be an error, or Joseph 
Smith were an impostor, of all mistakes 
this is one of the most unlikely that he 
would make ; for if there was any book 
that he was acquainted with, that book 
was the New Testament; and if he knew 
anyone thing of Christ's history, he cer- 
tainly knew that the Savior was not born 
In the city of Jerusalem. And even if 
there had been a conspiracy between 
him and his scribes, how utterly ridicu- 



lous is it to think that Martin Harris, who 
knew the Bible from Genesis to Revela- 
tions, or Oliver Cowdery, who was a 
schoolmaster, would have permitted him 
to make such an egregious blunder; one 
that everybody would detect. But there 
is no error. He simply translated after 
the manner of the speech of the Ne- 
phites. They did not know the land 
from whence their fathers came by the 
same name as we moderns do; it was 
not "Palestine," " Judea," nor "the Holy 
Land" to them; they called it "The land 
of Jerusalem;" and in that land Christ 
was most assuredly born. In this pas- 
sage there is no ambiguity, it is the land, 
as is specifically stated, not the city that 
is spoken of: "He shall be born of Mary 
at Jerusalem, which is the land of our 
forefathers." 

It was the almost universal custom 
among the Nephites to call any desig- 
nated region of country by the same 
name as its largest or chief city. In this 
way we find mentioned in the Book of 
Mormon both the lands and cities of 
Ammonihah, Bountiful, Desolation, He- 
lam, Lehi, Manti, Morianton, Moroni, 
Mulek, Nehor, Nephi, Nephihah, Noah, 
Shem, Shilom, Zarahemla, etc. 

It will be noticed that the lands and 
cities of the Nephites generally bore the 
name of some distinguished person 
known in their history, and were not 
fancy or whimsical names as are so many 
given to cities and places now-a-days. 
This arose from a well understood cus- 



OBJECTIONS TO THE BOOK OF MORMON. 



135 



torn prevalent among that people, which 
is thus explained in the Book of Alma: 

"Now, it was the custom of the people 
of Nephi to call their lands, and their 
cities, and their villages, yea, even their 
small villages, after the name of him 
who first possessed them; and thus it 
was with the land of Ammonihah." 
— Alma, viii, 7. 

To prove beyond all dispute that the 
land of Israel's inheritance on the Asiatic 
continent was called by the ancient in- 
habitants of America the "Land of Jeru- 
salem" we will quote from other passages 
in the Book of Mormon: 

"Now when Amnion and his brethren 
separated themselves in the borders of 
the land of the Lamanites, behold Aaron 
took his journey towards the land which 
was called by the Lamanites. Jerusalem; 
calling it after the land of their father's 
nativity; and it was away joining the bor- 
ders of Mormon." — Alma xxi, 1. 

"And now it came to pass after I, 
Nephi, had made an end of teaching my 
brethren, our father, Lehi, also spake 
many things unto them, how great things 
the Lord had done for them, in bringing 
them out of the land of Jerusalem. And 
he spake unto them, concerning their 
rebellions upon the waters, and the 
mercies of God in sparing their lives, 
that they were not swallowed up in the 
sea. And he also spake unto them, con- 
cerning the land of promise, which they 
had obtained: how merciful the Lord had 
been in warning us that we should flee 
out of the land of Jerusalem." — 2 Nephi; 

h 1—3- 

"Wherefore, thus saith the Lord, I have 
led this people forth out of the land of 
Jerusalem, by the power of mine arm, 
that I might raise up unto me a righteous 
branch from the fruit of the loins of 
Joseph." — Jacob ii, 25. 

In fact the expression the "Land of 
Jerusalem," when Canaan is meant, is 
used more than thirty times in the Book 
of Mormon; the Savior himself in his 
ministrations among the Nephites using 
this phraseology to accomodate himself 
to the understandings of that people. 
He says: "I will remember the covenant 
■which I have made with my people 



* * * that I would give unto 
them again the land of their fathers for 
their inheritance, which is the land of 
Jerusalem, which is the promised land 
unto them for ever, saith the Father." 
3 Nephi xx, 29. And a little farther on 
He adds: "Then will the Father gather 
them together again, and give unto them 
Jerusalem for the land of their inheri- 
tance.— 3, Nephi, xx, 33. 

Objection: "In the second book of 
Nephi it is said: 'Wherefore, when 
thou hast read the words which I have 
commanded thee, and obtained the wit- 
nesses which I have promised thee, then 
shalt thou seal up the book again, and 
hide it up unto me.' [2 Nephi xxvii, 22.] 
We learn that when Moroni hid up the 
plates, he buried them in the ground in 
a box; so we must look for Joseph to 
hide them in a similar manner; but did 
he doit? No; for his Apostle, Taylor, 
says: 'Concerning the plates, Joseph had 
them in his possession some time, 
* when he got through 
translating, they were delivered again 
to the angel.' So he did not hide up the 
plates, as stated in the Book of Mor- 
mon, but gave them to the angel; and 
here is a disagreement of testimony. 
Really, if the angel was so willing to 
take charge of the plates after Joseph 
had got through with them, why did 
not Moroni give them into the hands 
of an angel instead of hiding them in 
the ground?" 

The "disagreement in testimony" sug- 
gested by the objector, is simply imagi- 
nary. He is straining at a gnat. Joseph 
Smith both hid up the plates unto the 
Lord when the work of translation was 
finished and also delivered them unto 
the angel. That they are hidden must 
be at once acknowledged, for no mortal 
creature outside the Holy Priesthood, 
knows where to find them. So effectually 
are they hidden unto God (not from 
God) that the whole world, almost 
without exception, assert, that they 
never had an existence, and that the 
statements of the Prophet regarding 
their translation are false. The writer of 
the above objection asserts that when 
they were hidden up again it should be 



136 



OBJECTIONS TO THE BOOK OF MORMON. 



"in the ground." We reply, that is where 
they were hidden; and that when they 
were so hidden the angel Moroni was 
present and received them into his care. 
It was that angel who gave them into the 
charge of Joseph Smith when they were 
taken out of the hill Cumorah, and when 
Joseph had performed the work of trans- 
lation, assigned to him, he again de- 
posited them in the place designated by 
the Heavenly Powers, and the angel 
Moroni again assumed ward and watch 
over them. 

The question asked, "Why did not 
Moroni give them into the hands of an 
angel instead of hiding them in the 
ground?" is easily answered. In the 
first place, the later Nephite prophets 
were commanded by God to hide them 
in the ground; in the second place Mo- 
roni was himself the angel who took 
charge of them. He had charge of them, 
as a prophet of the Most High, when he 
dwelt in mortality, he has charge of 
them as an angel now that he is resur- 
rected. We have no record that he ever 
gave them permanently into the hands of 
any other being; and even during the 
time that Joseph was translating them he 
occasionally received them back into his 
charge, when persecution or other cir- 
cumstances rendered it undesirable that 
Joseph should retain them. 

With regard to the fact that the pro- 
phets who lived during the closing years 
of the Nephite nation were commanded 
to hide up the records, we subjoin two 
extracts from the Book of Mormon to 
prove the truth of our assertion: 

"And it came to pass that after three 
hundred and five years had passed away, 
(and the people did still remain in wick- 
edness,) Amos died, and his brother Am- 
maron, did keep the record in his stead. 
And it came to pass that when three hun- 
dred and twenty years had passed away, 
Ammaron being constrained by the Holy 
Ghost, did hide up the records which 
were sacred; yea, even all the sacred re- 
cords which had been handed down from 
generation to generation, which were sa- 
cred even until the three hundred and 
twentieth year from the coming of Christ. 
And he did hide them up unto the Lord, 



that they might come again unto the 
remnant of the house of Jacob, accord- 
ing to the prophecies and the promises 
of the Lord. And thus is the end of the 
record of Ammaron." — 4 Nephi, i, 47 — 

49- 

"And it came to pass that when we had 
gathered in all our people in one to the 
land of Cumorah, behold I, Mormon, 
began to be old; and knowing it to be 
the last struggle of my people, and hav- 
ing been commanded of the Lord that I 
should not suffer that the records, which 
had been handed down by our fathers, 
which were sacred, to fall into'the hands 
of the Lamanites, (for the Lamanites 
would destroy them,) therefore I made 
this record out of the plates of Nephi, 
and hid up, in the hill Cumorah, all the 
records which had been entrusted to me 
by the hand of the Lord, save it were 
these few plates which I gave unto my 
son Moroni." — Mormon, vi, 6. 

The above objector further asserts, 
"that the angel did not hide them is inti- 
mated in the claim that he came down 
from heaven and showed the plates to 
the three witnesses, another proof that 
Joseph did not hide them." This is 
folly in the extreme. When the plates 
were shown to the three witnesses they 
were not then hid. The passage in the 
Book of Nephi which the objector 
quotes as the basis of his arguments^ 
directly and unmistakably shows that the 
plates were not to be hidden up by 
Joseph until after the three witnesses 
had seen them. The words are, "where- 
fore when thou hast read the words 
which I have commanded thee, and ob- 
tained the witnesses which I have prom- 
ised unto thee, then shaft thou seal up 
the book again and hide it up unto me." 
The point, that because the angel came 
down from heaven, therefore the plates 
must necessarily have been with him in 
heaven, (which we suppose is the idea 
that the writer wishes to convey,) is not 
well taken. It is not a necessary se- 
quence that because the angel came down 
from heaven and showed the witnesses 
the plates, therefore they must have been 
in heaven also; they may have been on 
earth. The angel came down from 



IMPURE CASTES. 



137 



heaven when he first showed them to 
Joseph at the time that they were safely 
hidden in the stone chest in the hill 
Cumorah. They belong to the earth, 
and this earth is their place. 

The following extract from a sermon 
delivered by President Brigham Young 
at Farmington, June 17, 1877, will show 
where the plates were deposited. 

"I tell these things to you, and I have 
a motive for doing so. I want to carry 
them to the ears of my brethren and 
sisters and to the children also, that 
they may grow to an understanding of 
some things that seem to be entirely 
hidden from the human family. Oliver 
Cowdery went with the Prophet Joseph 
when he deposited these plates, Joseph 
did not translate all the plates ; there 
was a portion of them sealed, which you 
can learn from the Book of Doctrine 
and Covenants. When Joseph got the 
plates, the angel instructed him to carry 
them back to the hill Cumorah, which 
he did. Oliver says that when Joseph 
and Oliver went there, the hill opened, 
and they walked into a cave, in which 
was a large and spacious room. He 
says he did not think at the time whether 
they had the light of the sun or artificial 
light; but that it was just as light as day. 
They laid the plates on a table; it was 



a large table that stood in the room. 
Under this table there was a pile of 
plates as much as two feet high, and 
there were altogether in this room more 
plates than, probably, many wagon loads ; 
they were piled up in the corners and 
along the walls. The first time they went 
there, the sword of Laban hung upon the 
wall, but when they went again it had 
been taken down and laid upon the 
table across the gold plates; it was un- 
sheathed, and on it was written these 
words: 'This sword will never be 
sheathed again until the kingdoms of this 
world become the kingdoms of our God 
and his Christ.' I tell you this as coming 
not only from Oliver Cqwdery, but 
others who were familiar with it and 
who understood it just as well as we 
understand coming to this meeting." 

Geo. Reynolds. 



The Mohawks believed that a terrible 
misfortune would befall anyone who spoke 
while crossing Saratoga Lake. An Eng- 
lish lady did so purposely, and after 
passing in safety, rallied her Indian 
boatman on his fears. His reply was 
prompt: 

"Oh," he said, "the Great Spirit was 
merciful, and knew that a white woman 
couldn't hold her tongue." 



IMPURE CASTES. 



In the classification of the Indian peo- 
ple, the Kshatrya, or soldier is next to 
the Brahman in rank. His profession is 
to bear arms, and he is mantained from a 
tax, levied for the support of the govern- 
ment. A fourth part of the people were 
of this caste, who composed the military 
force of ancient India. This continual 
state of things, imposed a heavy tax 
upon the people, having to support one 
fourth of the able bodied population as 
soldiers, which was their calling from year 
to year and from generation to genera- 
tion. "By a king," says Menu, "whose 
forces are always ready for action, the 
whole world may be kept in awe, let 
him then, by a force always ready, make 



all creatures living his own." The kings 
of India had two great engines of 
power placed in their hands; they were 
masters of the army, and the public 
revenues were at their command. The 
Kshatryas having no other calling, but 
that of soldiers, one would naturally 
suppose, from their long experience, 
that they were military heroes, having ac- 
quired a formidable and warlike charac- 
ter. However, history informs us that 
India succumbed to every invader, and 
the military art of the Hindoo was next 
to nothing. Their infantry consisted of 
a multitude of people massed together, 
without regard to rank or file. 
The third caste among the Hin- 



138 



IMPURE CASTES. 



doos are called Vaisyas: they sprang 
from the thigh of Brahma and are the 
mercantile class. They are men of cute 
business principles. They are stock 
raisers; they cultivate the soil, and carry 
on all kinds of trade, are shrewd money 
lenders, and have a fair, practical knowl- 
edge of almost every branch of trade 
known in India. They rank above the 
Sudras, and receive from them the same 
respect and homage that is extended to 
the military class by the Vaisyas. 

The Sudras, or servile class, came 
from the foot of Brahma, their busi- 
ness is to serve the three superior classes, 
and at the same time are despised by 
them. "Let not a Brahman," says the 
law of Menu, "give advice to a Sudra, 
nor what remains from his table, nor 
clarified butter, of which part has been 
offered, nor let him give spiritual counsel 
to such a man, nor inform him of the 
legal expiation for his sins ; surely he 
who declares the law to a servile man,and 
he who instructs him in the mode of ex- 
piating sin, sinks with that very man 
into the hell named Asamvrita." In 
pinching times of want and stagnation, 
when the Brahman is pressed to obtain a 
subsistance in his braminical calling, to 
obtain a livelihood, he can assume the 
role of a Kshatrya, or a Vaisya,, but not 
of a Sudra. The military class, have 
the right, when in straitened circum- 
stances, to encroach upon the occupa- 
tion of the Vaisyas and Sudras to obtain 
a living, while the Vaisya can only have 
resource by adopting the profession of the 
servile class, when his own occupation 
is invaded by the competition of the 
classes above him. The poor Sudra 
has every door closed against him, his 
channel of subsistance being cut off by 
the classes above him. However, he is 
at liberty to emigrate to other countries, 
a privilege denied the other classes. 

According to the ancient jurisprudence 
of Hindoostan, if a man of superior 
caste accuses one of an inferior class, 
and fails to substantiate his allegations, 
he is lightly reprimanded; but if one of 
the lower castes should complain against 
one of the higher classes and is unable 
to sustain his charge, he is severely pun- 



ished. The punishment is graded, and 
is administered proportionately to the 
order of the caste. The punishment of 
a Brahman, generally is very slight, that 
of the military class more severe. If 
the offender be of the Vaisya caste, his 
punishment is cruel, but if one of the 
servile classes is the transgressor, the 
chastisement inflicted is barbarous. A 
Brahman for defaming the character of a 
man of the same caste, is fined twelve 
janas. If the defamer belongs to the 
military class his fine is one hundred 
janas, a merchant two hundred, a Sudra 
is whipped. 

Notwithstanding the strict guards 
thrown around the castes to prevent 
them marrying others than of their own 
class or profession, irregularities crept 
in, and children were born through a 
union strictly forbidden. This departure 
from established usages, according to 
the Hindoo law, introduced an impure 
blood, denominated Burren S tinker, that 
were viewed by the established classes 
as outcasts, being without caste, and 
consequently no occupation. This new 
mixture from themselves, filled the coun- 
try with disorder; not being classified 
they had to live on the charities of the 
other classes, or prey upon them for 
their subsistance. 

This condition of things was inaugu- 
rated by a corrupt monarch, who lent his 
influence to outrage the law, by encourag- 
ing the promiscuous mixture of the castes. 
The Brahmans slew this corrupt king, 
and by the assistance of a supernatural 
power created a successor, who was 
good and wise. He proved competent to 
grapple with the evil that was cankering 
the empire, and introduced a remedy by 
classifying the Burren Sunker, and giv- 
ing them trades. According to Hindoo 
books this was the beginning of arts 
and manufactures in India, hence the 
labors of this impure class were utilized 
for the benefit of the whole. 

The Burren Sunker were organized 
into thirty-six different classes, such as 
weavers, tailors, cooks, carpenters, black- 
smiths, incorporating all kinds of arti- 
zans, and handicrafts. The highest 
status of this union was the offspring of 



IMPURE CASTES. 



139 



a Brahman with a woman belonging to 
the Kshatrya class, whose profession was 
to teach the military art. The offspring 
whose father is of the servile class, and 
the mother of the Brahminical order, are 
the most degraded of all the classes. 
They are called Chandalas, and are 
despised by all their superiors. Their 
calling is to execute criminals, carry out 
corpses to the place of cremation, and 
to perform all other services that are 
considered abject and unclean. The 
Chandalas are even more despised than a 
Sudra. When they meet any of the su- 
perior castes they are obliged to turn out 
of the way till they pass. They are con- 
signed to live in isolation, so as not to 
pollute the village where they reside. 

"Avoid," says the Tantra, "the 
touch of the Chandalas and other ab- 
ject classes. Whoever associates with 
them undoubtedly falls from his class; 
whoever bathes or drinks in wells or 
pools, which they have caused to be 
made, must be purified by the five pro- 
ductions of Kine. 

Wm. Fotheringkam. 



The Rev. Plato Johnson sometimes 
refers to scientific subjects in his dis- 
courses. Last Sunday morning, in a ser- 
mon on the origin of man, he said : — 
"Bruddern, de trubble wid some folks 
is dat dere brains is too large. I don't 
'tend to be pussonal an' has no reference 
whatever to any man in dis' sembly; but 
dere is people in dis woiT who has a 
'pression dat dey oughter have created 
de Lord, an' dat it was a act of condes- 
censhun on dere parts dat dey 'lowed de 
Lord to create dem at all, an' dey's ben 
sorry ebber sence dat dey didn' assert 
dere rights on de fust day an' hab a 
han' in making' tings. Now, dere's Mr. 
Darwin, a man who has been makin' a 
big fuss 'bout de way de Lord put tings 
togedder, an' beleebs de whole ob creation 
is wrong jist cos he was n't 'suited. I 
wish de Lord would gib sech men as him 
'bout a couple ob acres ob de 'riginal 
chaos, an' see wat kind ob a fist day 
would make ob it. I guess dat arter a 
while dey would all move off dere own 
plantation an' try to rent a house on 



de land whar de Lord was runnin' de 
machine. Dis Darwin says dat a man 
is de gran' son 'ob a' monkey, an' dat 
de Bible aint got de truff ob de matter 
at all. You'se all de chillen of baboons, 
my belubbed. Wat you tink ob dat? 
How you like your ancestors? In de be- 
ginnin' every one ob you had a long 
tail — dat was long 'fore you wore trousers 
— an'some ob you got your tails twisted 
off, an' some ob you was 'shamed ob 'em, 
an' rubbed 'em off against de trees, 
an' at lass de tails got so disgusted 
dat dey refused to grow. Dat's wot 
you are an' dat's whar you cum from. 
Now, den, my idea is dat ebbery man 
oughter speak for himself on dis sub- 
jec'. Ef Mr. Darwin was born up 
in a tree while his mudder was stealing 
cocoanuts it don't follow dat my mudder 
was up anoder tree doin' de same ting. 
Darwin is dead shore dat his ancestors 
was apes, an' he oughter know. I ain't 
goin' to contradict it. Ebbery man must 
look after his own family. As fur me, 
I'se a Bible Christian, an' was made 
out ob de dust, an' don't take no stock in 
de monkeys. I can look any one ob 'em 
in de face widout a blush for my family, 
an' say, 'Go long 'bout your business, you 
ole eater ob peanuts, you ain't no fust 
cousin ob mine.' I can stan' in front ob 
a whole cage ob dese funny little fellers, 
an' don't feel no family sympathy stirrin' 
in my heart. De fust chapter of Genesis 
is good 'nuff fur me belubbed. Pass de 
box." 



Every man ought to aim at eminence, 
not by pulling others down, but by rais- 
ing himself up. 

The boys and girls of these mountains 
cannot be made slaves. They have come 
through a lineage that knew what free- 
dom was worth and how to contend for 
it. Moses Tliatcher. 

Our physical well being, our moral 
worth, our social happiness, our political 
tranquility, all depend upon the control 
of our appetites and passions, which the 
ancients designated by the cardinal virtue 
of Temperance. — Burke. 



140 



ASSOCIATION HISTORY. 



ASSOCIATION HISTORY. 



WEBER COUNTY. 
II. 

Immediately after the organization of 
this board, the members entered upon 
their labors in real earnest, and took into 
consideration the best measures calcu- 
lated to promote the interests of the 
young in these associations. Having 
decided upon the proper course to pur- 
sue, appointments were made in a num- 
ber of the surrounding settlements. On 
Sunday, April 28, they visited and organ- 
ized the associations in Slaterville, 
Marriotts and Lynne, and in the evening 
visited the association at Mound Fort 
which was already organized. On Sun- 
day, May 8, the board met and organized 
the associations in Harrisville and North 
Ogden; and in each place the young 
manifested by their presence, their ap- 
preciation of the privileges placed with- 
in their reach. 

On the first day of June, 1878, the 
first number of the second volume of 
the Amateur was issued in a greatly 
enlarged and improved form. Jos. A. 
West being editor. The subscription 
was placed at one dollar a year and 
it received a wide circulation through- 
out the county; R. A. Ballantyne was 
the business manager. The paper, as 
before, was devoted to the improve- 
ment of the young,many of whom availed 
themselves of the privilege of writ- 
ing for its columns, The programme 
of exercises was published in it for the 
guidance of the societies, together with 
other association intelligence. A prize 
essay column was also introduced which 
created a commendable spirit of emula- 
tion among the contributors and greatly 
added to the interest of the paper. The 
central board had regular meetings in 
which much interest was taken, and in 
the exercises of which many took part, 
making them of absorbing interest. The 
labors of the board extended to all the 
societies in the county, and the different 
settlements were often visited by them 
when the good advice given was greatly 
appreciated by the members. 

The publication of the Amateur was 



continued for one year until May 5th, 
1879, at which date there had been issued 
fifteen thousand copies at a cost for pub- 
lication, alone, of over one thousand dol- 
lars; all other work had been done 
gratuitously by members of the associa- 
tion. It then suspended and has not 
been resumed in the shape it was be- 
fore, but a general magazine for the 
societies of the whole territory has 
supplanted it, we refer to the excellent 
publication, the "Contributor," pub- 
lished by Junius F. Wells, at Salt Lake 
City. 

The central board has continued under 
the presidency of Elder Jos. A. West, 
up to the present time, to perform dili- 
gently the labors for which it was organ- 
ized. Changes have been made in the 
officers on account of other duties that 
its members have been called upon to 
perform. The county is to-day divided 
into seven circuits of two, three and 
four societies each, making a total of 
twenty-one societies, with a membership 
of over eight hundred. These circuits 
have a conference quarterly, at which 
time the central board meets with the 
societies of the circuit, giving useful 
instructions concerning the topic of 
Mutual Improvement. The meetings are 
held in the wards alternately, so that 
each ward has the privilege of having a 
quarterly conference in its turn. In- 
ter-missionary labor is also kept up 
between the wards of the circuit, which 
has a tendency to exercise the young 
in public speaking. Every three months 
a quarterly conference is held in Ogden, 
where all the societies are represented 
and reports are heard from the presi- 
dents. There are eight libraries in the 
county and eight manuscript papers 
published. During the past year sixty- 
six thousand one hundred and twenty- 
eight chapters have been read, seven 
hundred and eighty-three lectures given 
and six hundred and thirty-five testimon- 
ies borne. 

The forenoon of the circuit confer- 
ence is occupied in exercises of the 
societies composing the circuit. These 



ASSOCIATION HISTORY. 



141 



are of a highly interesting character, and 
nothing so tends to give a person joy at 
the improvement and labors of the young 
as attending these conferences through- 
out the county. The afternoon meetings 
are occupied in hearing instructions from 
the central board ; who are always well 
entertained and received by the societies. 
As a rule in these meetings one or more 
manuscript papers are read, and through- 
out the Stake these are doing much good 
in teaching the young to use the pen 
successfully. In listening to them one 
is often struck with the orginality of the 
articles and the sound advice therein 
contained. The societies are laboring 
not only in this way but in many other 
ways for the furtherance of mutual im- 
provement. Many of them have organ- 
ized and are farming for the benefit of 
the associations. Thus we have instances 
where associations have by united effort, 
and without any expense, except their 
own labors, been able to raise grain to 
the amount of many dollars, which have 
been spent for the purchase of libraries. 
From these they have interested them- 
selves during their leisure time in winter, 
and thus where much valuable time was 
formerly spent in idleness, it is now 
spent in useful study. The consequences 
are we are growing better and wiser. 
The central board is laboring diligently 
among the associations, making suggest- 
ions here and there, and are untiring in 
their mission of good. In the early part 
of May a meeting of the presidents of 
the various societies was held in Ogden 
for the purpose of considering the pro- 
priety of changing the nature of the 
exercises of the quarterly conferences 
held in Ogden, to conform with those 
of the circuits. It was agreed that each 
society should be required to take a part 
in the exercises determined upon. Each 
society was to prepare a manuscript 
paper, selections from which were to be 
read in connection with the other exer- 
cises. The committee on programme 
adopted for the first following confer- 
ence, held July 10, 1881 : Opening exer- 
cises: 1. Faith, First Ward; 2. Music; 
3. Repentance, Plain City; 4. Reading 
from Essays; 5. Ancient Profane His- 



tory, Third Ward ; 6. Music ; 7. Baptism, 
Huntsville; 8. Church History, Hooper; 

9. Gift of the Holy Ghost, Harrisville; 

10. Music, instrumental and vocal fur- 
nished by North Ogden; 11. Sketch of 
the organizations by E. H. Anderson. 

The following were chosen to arrange 
programmes for other conferences: Chas. 
Wright, Jas. Storey, G. R. Belnap, L. 
A. Herrick, and F. E. Barker. 

The following are the present mem- 
bers of the central board, December, 1 881. 
Jos. A. West, President; E. N. Free- 
man, First Counselor, L. A, Herrick, 
Second Counselor; A. T. Wright, Cor- 
responding Secretary; E. H. Anderson, 
Recording Secretary; John L. Wilson, 
Treasurer. 

The associations in the county to-day 
are in a good condition and are continu- 
ally improving in the work of God. 
Many of the members are on missions 
to foreign countries, and it is a notice- 
able fact, that all who are prominent 
young men in the county are or have 
been members of these associations. 
From the reports that have been re- 
ceived, thousands of chapters have been 
read by the members of each society, 
and as a whole the amount of reading 
done, since the organization, has been 
very great. From present appearances 
the good will continue to increase until 
all the young will be members of these 
societies, and the great good, at first 
confined to a few, be scattered abroad 
to all. We can not help but think that 
the early laborers in this cause will be 
honored. That they will be looked back 
to as staunch laborers in a righteous 
cause. That when mutual improvement 
shall be the rule among young and old 
and its effects shall be seen among all 
the youth of Zion, the early founders of 
the associations will be honored, as such 
people should be honored, who labor to 
rear the young in truth and virtue. 

E. H. Anderson. 



The closing scene in the life of 
Mozart, is one of the most touching 
ever recorded. Fie seems to have suf- 
fered all his life from the fear and dread 
of death. He had been employed upon 



142 



RELIGION AT HOME. 



his "requiem" several weeks, all the while 
his soul was filled with the richest melody. 
After giving to his requiem its last 
touch, and breathing into it the soul of un- 
dying harmony, which was to consecrate 
it through all time as his cygnean strain, 
he fell into a gentle slumber. At length 
the light footstep of his daughter Emily 
awoke him. "Come hither, my Emily," 
he said; "my task is done, the requiem — 
my requiem is finished." "Say not so, 
dear father," said the gentle girl, as the 
tears stood in her large and lustrous eyes ; 
"you must be better, father, for even 
now there is a glow upon your cheek." 

"Do not deceive yourself my darling 
child," said the dying father; "this wasted 
form can never be restored by human aid ; 
to God alone I look for help in this my 
dying hour. My Emily," continued the 
father, "take these my last notes and sit 
down by the piano and sing them to me 
with the hymn of thy sainted mother. 
Let me hear those dear tones once more 
which have so long been my solace and 
delight." 

The daughter sat down and, with a 
voice enriched with tenderest emotion, 
sang the following lines ; 



Spirit, thy labor is o'er; 

Thy earthly probation is run ; 
Thy steps are now bound for the untrodden 
shore, 

And the race of immortals begun. 

Spirit, look not on the strife 

Or the pleasures of earth with regret — 
Pause not on the threshold of limitless life 

To mourn for the day that is set. 

Spirit, no fetter can bind, 

No wicked have power to molest; 
There the weary, like thee, the wretched shall 
find 

A haven— a mansion of rest. 

Spirit, how bright is the road, 

For which thou art now on the wing; 

Thy home it will be with thy father and God, 
Their loud alleluiahs to sing. 

As she concluded, she dwelt for a 
moment upon the low melancholy notes 
of the piece, and then, turning from the 
piano, looked in silence for the approving 
smile of her father. It was the still pas- 
sionless smile, which the wrapt and joyous 
spirit had left, with the seal of death, upon 
those beautiful features; for the great 
musician was dead. 



RELIGION AT HOME 



The influence of religious thought 
and theory is more potent in the home 
circle than in any other, of man's daily 
life. It may be said to be the foundation 
upon which all the domestic virtues rest, 
and yet how little does it seem to enter 
into the composition of many homes. 
Its suggestions are not always heeded, 
its requirements are not always filled, 
its spirit is not always cultivated, nor 
are its fruits every where seen, or, in any 
place, found in two lavish abundance. 
The young men and women who have 
membership in our mutual improvement 
associations will be the future fathers 
and mothers of our community, they will 
leave the homes of childhood and youth, 
and jointly create homes which they will 
call their own. Marriage, while an ex- 
pected duty, is the assumption of a posi- 
tion of responsibility, its portals can be 



entered on due reflection, or its duties 
may be commenced in a thoughtless 
mood, yet a momentary glance will show 
it to be the most important step in the 
life of either man or woman. 

Not alone is the manhood and woman- 
hood of "the high contracting parties" 
involved, but the lives of their poster^', 
and the circle and community in which 
they reside will be affected by the 
momentous step. Marriage was or- 
dained of God, it is a divine institution, 
existing not in time only and on the 
earth, but it belongs to the eternities of 
the past, and will exist in the eternities 
of the future, hence in its origin and 
continuance it should always be in- 
vested with and glorified by the observ- 
ances and sanction of religion. There 
are those who consider that love, is 
the one grand and necessary element 



RELIGION AT HOME. 



143 



in the institution of marriage, and that 
where this is, that the authoritative aid, 
whether civil or ecclesiastical, is super- 
fluous, and that submission to either, is 
obedience simply to custom or fashion, 
or to confer legality ugon the act. 

But experience shows that much of 
what is called love is but the glamour 
and fascination that belong to sex; that 
rarely is reason and judgment exercised 
in the selection of a companion and help- 
mate for life, and rarely on either side 
are the characteristics exhibited taken 
into account. Some, seeing this have 
said, that, "many a marriage begins like 
a rosy morning and falls away like a snow 
wreath," because of the intangible found- 
ation upon which this supposed love was 
based. 

There are reflections growing out of 
the religion of Jesus Christ, which will 
bear continuous thought in regard to 
this relationship, the sexes are eternal 
and marriage is for the continuation of 
life, hence all who have entered that state 
should be fairly posted in regard to the 
functions of procreation. When gener- 
ation approaches perfection there will 
probably be less necessity for regenera- 
tion ; for those born aright there may be 
less necessity for their being born again; 
and it seems from observations and 
revelations as if the Father realized that 
his children had in a great measure de- 
parted from him, and sunk by self-in- 
dulgence the higher attributes of man- 
hood in subordination to the lower. 

It is a fact which none can gainsay, 
that the spiritual faculties of man have 
for ages become more and more dor- 
mant, the animal portion of man's nature 
has acquired ascendancy, until heaven 
has become beyond the ordinary thought 
or reach of the masses of our race. In- 
dulgence of passion, appetite and taste, 
proves the perversion of the powers of 
being, and the premature death of par- 
ents and children demonstates the wan- 
ing power and continuity of life. One of 
the early revelations given in this age 
aimed to reduce the sensual tendencies 
of a fallen condition, and to deprive the 
passionate or base brain of many an 
accustomed stimulus. The "Word of 



Wisdom" was given in the interests of 
regeneration, and a strict observance 
of this, in the economy of life, will cool 
the ardor of passion and desire, while 
loftier thoughts of creative power, as 
shrined in the marriage covenant, will 
suggest appropriate season and thought- 
ful purpose in the Godlike pursuit of 
desirable parentage. 

Not only so, but as the enlightening 
influence of the divine spirit is increased 
in the new formed circle of connubial 
life, so will the sacredness of the 
prospective mother be enchanced, and 
every unhallowed thought and feeling 
will in passing, leave to nature and to 
God, that which will be sanctified even 
"from the mother's womb." 

Further, as a still more potent aid in the 
work of physical and spiritual regenera- 
tion, comes the philosophical revelation of 
the patriarchal order of marriage. A divi- 
sion of hereditary tendencies will surely 
act with cumulative power upon posterity, 
and while it may truthfully be said of 
modern lascivious monogamy that "the 
foundation of prostitution is in the mar- 
riage bed," it can as truly be said that in 
the patriarchal order, toned by obedience 
to every "Word of Wisdom," and hon- 
ored in the spirit of sanctified self-re- 
straint, there will be such increase in 
real virtue, purity and chastity, that from 
prospective motherhood, to completed 
lactation of the given of heaven, every 
feeling will be in approaching harmony 
to the natural and every where exhibited 
conditions of increase. 

In the overcoming of perverted in- 
stincts, in bringing into Godlike order 
this marvelous function of fatherhood 
and motherhood, how would our self- 
respect be increased, how would there 
be a greater exhibition of manly vigor in 
the performance of the duties of our then 
more enjoyable life ; and how would the 
lassitude and ennui of wifehood become 
as a memory of the everpast; how 
would depleted function, give place to 
rosy health; and how would the num- 
bers be reduced of those we call and 
mourn for as "our early dead?" Oh 
what hecatombs of the purest and most 
affectionate of womankind, and what un- 



i 4 4 



OTTERS. 



counted hosts of short sweet lives have 
been offered up at the shrine of passion, 
ignorance and irreligion ! 

The spirit of true religion, the teach- 
ings of a God-given faith, the author- 
ity of a divine Priesthood, ministering 
around the sacred altar of enlightened 
homes, will in consideration of the mar- 
riage covenant, in realizing its creative 
power, its enduring character, become 
more orderly, more heavenly, or more 
decidedly a reflex of that which glows 
behind the vail. 

A home without religion is a world 
without its sun, life is bleak and limited; 



in crude forms only it greets the longing 
vision, but when warmed by true love, 
based on true conceptions, and animated 
by the true spirit, it becomes prolific of 
verdure, weighted with its wealth of 
fruit; and yet the earthly harvest (even at 
its best) is but prophetic of that Home, 
where knowledge is perfect and wisdom 
is "our righthand man," we shall enjoy 
all the potency of a religion heaven 
created and also heaven controlled. 

//. IV. Naisbitt. 



None scale the rank of mediocrity but 
by self sacrifice. 



OTTERS. 



Among the animals that live partly in 
the water and partly on the land, that 
can run about on the shore and breathe 
the air just as well as we can, and yet dive 
under the water and swim like a fish, 
one of the most interesting is the otter. 
A common otter is about the size of a 
small dog, having a narrow body two 
feet long, and very short legs. It is 
covered with handsome fur next to its 
skin, and outside of this there is a coat 
of long, coarse hair. 

As this animal is very fond of the 
water, and lives principally on fish, it 
makes its home on the shore of a creek 
or river. This home is a hole under- 
ground, generally quite close to the 
water. The entrance to the burrow is 
always under water, and leads upward to 
the main apartment, which is dug out as 
high up in a bank as possible, so that, in 
case of a flood in the stream, the water 
will not rise up along the entrance-way 
and into the otter's house. Sometimes 
the animal makes two or three chambers, 
one above another, so that, in case the 
water should rise in a lower room, he 
and his family could go up higher, and 
keep dry. He does not mind being 
under the water for a time, but he can 
not live under water. From the top of 
his house up to the surface of the 
ground, he makes a small hole to let in 
air; so, you see, the otter is a very 



clever creature. The entrance to his 
house is hidden under water, where no 
dog nor other enemy is likely to find it, 
or to get in if they do find it; and his 
home is so well planned that some part of 
it is always dry and well ventilated. 

When the otter wants his supper — for, 
as he eats at night, it may be said that he 
takes neither breakfast nor dinner — he 
slips quietly into the water, and as soon 
as he sees a fish, he gives chase to it. 
He has large, full eyes, like a seal's, and 
he can see in the water as well as on 
land. He is web-footed, and his long, 
flexible body and stout tail enable him 
to move through the water with a motion 
very much like that of a fish. He can 
thus swim very fast, and few fish are 
able to escape him. 

During the day-time, the otter gener- 
ally stays quiet in his burrow, but at 
night he comes out, and makes it very 
lively for the fish. Sometimes, when fish 
are scarce, he will do his midnight hunt- 
ing on land, and will be glad to catch a 
chicken or any other small animal he 
may meet. 

If an otter is caught when it is 
quite young, it may be tamed. I once 
saw a couple of tame ones in New York, 
and they were as lively and playful as a 
pair of terrier dogs. Sometimes tame 
otters are trained to catch fish for their 
masters. In this kind of fishing, the 



OTTERS. 



145 



otter slips quietly into the water, and 
generally catches first all the fish he 
wants to eat himself. When he has had 
enough, he brings the next one he catches 
to his master. A very well-trained otter 
will go into the water several times in 
this way, and frequently will bring out a 
large fish each time. Otters are occasion- 
ally employed by fishermen who use 
nets. The nets are first set, and then 
the otters go into the water and drive the 
fish into the nets, where they are caught. 

There is a story told of a man in 
England who had a tame otter which 
followed him about on shore like a dog, 
and which, also, used to fish for him. 
The two companions would go out on 
the river in a boat, when the otter would 
jump overboard, and bring fish back to 
the man. If the animal stayed away too 
long, his master would call him by his 
name, and he would immediately return. 

One day the man was away from home, 
and his young son thought it would be a 
good idea to take his father's otter and 
go fishing. So he took the little animal 
into the boat, and rowed out upon the 
river. The otter jumped into the river 
exactly as he used to do for the boy's 
father, but he stayed below a long time, 
and when the boy called him he did not 
come back. Either he did not know his 
name when spoken by a strange voice, 
or he did not like the boy well enough 
to come back to him, for he remained 
out of sight, and after the boy had called 
him in vain for a long time, he was obliged 
to return to shore without him. 

Several days after this, the man was 
walking along the river-bank near the 
place where his son had gone fishing. 
He was greatly grieved at the loss of his 
pet otter, and I expect the boy had been 
whipped. The man stood at the edge of 
the water, and began to call the otter by 
his name. He did not think there was 
any particular use in doing this, but it 
reminded him of his little friend and of 
old fishing times. But you can scarce- 
ly imagine his astonishment when, in 
a few moments, his faithful otter came 
swimming out of the water, and lay down 
on the shore at his feet. If he had 
brought a string offish along with him, I 
5* 



do not think the man could have been 
more surprised and delighted. 

In India and some other Eastern 
countries, this fishing with tame otters is 
made quite a business. Bishop Heber 
tells us that on the bank of a river in Hin- 
dostan he once saw eight or nine fine 
large otters tied to stakes driven into the 
sand. These handsome fellows were 
either lying asleep on the shore or swim- 
ming about in the water as far as their 
ropes would let them. It is likely that 
when these otters were used for fishing, 
their native masters did not set them 
loose and allow them to swim about as 
they pleased; but made them go into the 
water with the long cord still fastened to 
their necks. In this way the otter could 
swim far enough to catch fish, and his 
master would be always sure of having 
his otter, whether he got any fish or not. 

In England, otter-hunting used to be 
a favorite amusement, and in some parts 
of the country it is carried on yet. A 
certain kind of dog, called the otter 
hound, is especially trained for this sport 
and the hunters use short spears. Some 
of the hunters and dogs go on one side 
of the stream where otters are expected 
to be found, and some on the other. If 
an otter has recently been along the 
bank, the dogs catch his scent, and they 
bark and howl, and scratch the ground, 
and the men shout and beat the reedy 
bushes and the shore until the poor 
otter is frightened out of his house, and 
takes to the water. But here he is 
discovered by the bubbles of air which 
come up where he is breathing, and the 
men wade into the stream and strike at 
the place where they suppose the otter 
is. The dogs, too, sometimes go into 
the water, and in this way the otter is 
either killed or driven ashore. When he 
goes on land he generally shows fight, 
and the dogs often have a very hard time 
before he is killed. 

There are otters, however, which are 
much better worth hunting than the 
common otter. These are the great sea- 
otters, which are found in the regions 
about Behring's Straits and in Kam- 
schatka, also in some of the waters of 
South America. These are much larger 



146 



THE ECHO CANON WAR. 



than the common otter, some of them 
weighing seventy or eighty pounds. 
These animals are hunted for the sake of 
their fur, which is very valuable, and they 
are probably not so active and difficult to 
kill as the common otter, which has so 
many enemies that it is obliged to be 
very cunning and courageous. Up in 
those cold regions where the sea otter 
lives, he is only occasionally disturbed 
by man, and probably never by any other 
creature. These otters do not appear to 
pursue ordinary fish in the water, but feed 
upon lobsters and other shell-fish. 

Sea-otters are said to be very affection- 
ate to their young, but it is not likely 
that they are more so than the common 
otter; the difference probably is that the 
sea-otter is much less wild and shy than 
the common otter, and its habits and dis- 
position toward its young are therefore 
more easily observed. Ordinary young 
otters, even when mere infants, will, at 
the slightest sign of danger, pop into the 



water with their parents, and come up in 
some spot among the reeds and grass 
where it is impossible to see them. 

There is an animal in this country 
which is placed by some writers in the 
otter tribe, although we do not generally 
consider it as such. This is the mink, 
or minx, and it is a great deal more 
troublesome to us than any ordinary otter ; 
for it does not confine itself to catching 
fish, but will come into the barn-yard and 
kill chickens or any other poultry it can 
lay hold of. Its work, like that of the 
common otter, is done at night. 

The fur of all the otter family is soft 
and valuable, and if it were not for this 
fact, there would probably be a great 
many more otters in the world than there 
are now. — St. Nicholas. 



Some souls are in danger of being lost, 
because they are too small to be discover- 
ed: we suppose the Lord would not ob- 
ject to saving them, if he could find them. 



THE ECHO CANYON WAR. 



IV 

The news brought on the twenty-fourth 
of July, soon spread throughout the 
Territory. No people threatened with 
the invasion of their domain, the over- 
throw of their institutions and the des- 
truction of their leaders, ever viewed the 
hostile attitude of a great foe, with less 
apprehension, as to results, than did the 
people of Utah. They had an abiding 
faith that the time had come when the 
favor of the Lord of Hosts would be 
manifested in their preservation, and rest- 
ed secure in the belief that President 
Young's prediction of ten years previous 
would surely be fulfilled. He publicly 
stated on that occasion that if our enemies 
would leave us alone for ten years, we 
would ask no odds of them. The people 
needed at least ten years respite from the 
drivings and burnings and murderings 
that had driven them from state to state 
and finally from the realm of civilization 
into the unknown wilderness of the West. 
They had profited by the period of peace 



they had enjoyed and their love of free- 
dom was promoted and increased by 
the untrammelled exercise of its bless- 
ings for so long a time. Besides this, 
the spirit of liberty, which is character- 
istic of mountain regions, was everywhere 
declared, even in the very elements, to 
predominate over every other influence. 
A people situated as ours were, with the 
favor of God to rely upon and unwaver- 
ing confidence in their leaders, were too 
strongly fortified for an aggressor to ever 
make much head against them. Our 
people felt that they had suffered the yoke 
of mobocratic rule long enough and they 
declared, in unmistakable language, their 
determination to resist the effort of the 
governmentrto again expose them to the 
rapacious plunderers, who sought their 
lives, their homes, and were bent upon 
their humiliation and destruction. The 
puplic discourses of those days following 
the "Twenty-fourth," breathed this spirit, 
and it was taken up and carried to every 
household. 



THE ECHO CAJVOJV WAR. 



147 



When Captain Van Vliet, the first 
official personage sent from the army 
headquarters, arrived in Salt Lake City, 
September 8, he found the people in this 
condition. He was however welcomed and 
received many courtesies and testimonials 
of kindness, which his gentlemanly de- 
portment justified. He mingled quite 
freely with the inhabitants of the city 
during his stay, partaking of their boun- 
ties, and having a very pleasant time. We 
subjoin his official report of his visit, as 
showing the object for which he came and 
the spirit of the people that he was sent 
to deal with. It was addressed to Cap- 
tain Pleasanton, Assistant Adjutant Gen- 
eral, Army for Utah, Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas. 

Ham's Fork, 

September 16, 1857. 

Captain: I have the honor to report, 
for the information of the commanding 
general, the result of my trip to the 
Territory of Utah. 

In obedience to special instructions, 
dated headquarters army for Utah, Fort 
Leavenworth, July 28, 1857, I left Fort 
Leavenworth, July ip, and reached Fort 
Kearney in nine traveling days, Fort Lar- 
amie in ten, and Great Salt Lake City in 
.thirty-three and a half. At Fort Kearney 
I was detained one day by the changes I 
had to make and by sickness, and at Fort 
Laramie three days, as all the animals 
were forty miles from the post, and when 
brought in all had to be shod before they 
could take the road. I traveled as rapid- 
ly as it is possible to do with six mule 
wagons. Several of my teams broke 
down, and at least half of my animals 
are unserviceable and will remain so 
until they recruit. During my progress 
towards Utah I met many people from 
that Territory, and also several mountain 
men at Green River, and all informed me 
that I would not be allowed to enter 
Utah, and if I did I would run great risk 
of losing my life. I treated all this, 
however, as idle talk, but it induced me 
to leave my wagons and escort at Ham's 
Fork, 143 miles this side of the city, and 
proceed alone. I reached Great Salt 
Lake City without molestation, and im- 
mediately upon my arrival I informed 



Governor Brigham Young that I desired 
an interview, which he appointed for the 
next day. On the evening of the day of 
my arrival Governor Young, with many of 
the leading men of the city, called upon 
me at my quarters. The governor re- 
ceived me most cordially and treated me 
during my stay, which continued some 
six days, with the greatest hospitality and 
kindness. In this interview the governor 
made known to me his views with regard 
to the approach of the United States 
troops, in plain and unmistakable lan- 
guage. 

He stated that the Mormons had been 
persecuted, murdered and robbed in Mis- 
souri and Illinois both by the mob and 
State authorities, and that now the United 
States were about to pursue the same 
course, and that, therefore, he and the 
people of Utah had determined to resist 
all persecution at the commencement, 
and that the troops now on the march for 
Utah should not enter the Great Salt Lake 
valley. As he uttered these words all 
present concurred most heartily in what 
he said. 

The next day, as agreed upon, I called 
upon the governor and delivered in person 
the letter with which I had been intrusted. 
In that interview, and in several subse- 
quent ones, the same determination to 
resist to the death the entrance of the 
troops into the valley was expressed by 
Governor Young and those about him. 

The governor informed me that there 
was abundance of everything I required 
for the troops, such as lumber, forage, etc., 
but that none would be sold to us. In 
the course of my conversations with the 
governor and influential men in the Terri- 
tory, I told them plainly and frankly 
what I conceived would be the result of 
their present course. I told them that 
they might prevent the small military 
force now approaching Utah from getting 
through the narrow defiles and rugged 
passes of the mountains this year, but 
that next season the United States govern- 
ment would send troops sufficient to over- 
come all opposition. The answer to this 
was invariably the same: "We are aware 
that such will be the case; but when 
those troops arrive they will find Utah a 



143 



THE ECHO CANON WAR. 



desert. Every house will be burned to 
the ground, every tree cut down, and 
every field laid waste. We -have three 
years provisions on hand, which we will 
'cache,' and then take to the mountains 
and bid defiance to all the powers of the 
government." I attended their service 
on Sunday, and, in course of a sermon 
delivered by Elder Taylor, he referred to 
the approach of the troops and declared 
they should not enter the Territory. He 
then referred to the probability of an 
overpowering force being sent against 
them, and desired all present, who would 
apply the torch to their own buildings, cut 
down their trees, and lay waste their 
fields, to hold up their hands. Every 
hand, in an audience numbering over four 
thousand persons, was raised at the same 
moment. During my stay in the city I 
visited several families, and all with whom 
I was thrown looked upon the present 
movement of the troops towards their 
Territory as the commencement of an- 
other religious persecution, and express- 
ed a fixed determination to sustain Gov- 
ernor Young in any measures he might 
adopt. From all these facts I am forced 
to the conclusion that Governor Young 
and the people of Utah will prevent, if 
possible, the army for Utah from entering 
their Territory this season. This, in my 
opinion, will not be a difficult task, owing 
to the lateness of the season, the small- 
ness of our force, and the defences that 
nature has thrown around the valleyof the 
Great Salt Lake. There is but one road 
running into the valley on the side which 
our troops are approaching, and for over 
fifty miles it passes through narrow can- 
ons and over rugged mountains which a 
small force could hold against great odds. 
I am inclined, however, to believe that 
the Mormons will not resort to actual hos- 
tilities until the last moment. Their plan 
of operations will be to burn the grass, 
cut up the roads, and stampede the 
animals, so as to delay the troops until 
snow commences to fall, which will render 
the road impassable. Snow falls early in 
this region; in fact last night it commenc- 
ed falling at Fort Bridget and this morn- 
ing the sorrounding mountains are cloth- 
ed in white. Were it one month earlier 



in the season, I believe the troops could 
force their way in, and they may be able 
to do so even now; but the attempt will 
be fraught with considerable danger, aris- 
ing from the filling up of the canons and 
passes with snow. 1 do not wish it to be 
considered that I am advocating either 
the one course or the other. I simply 
wish to lay the facts before the General, 
leaving it to his better judgment to decide 
upon the proper movements. Notwith- 
standing my inability to make the pur- 
chases I was ordered to, and all that Gov- 
ernor Young said in regard to opposing 
the entrance of the troops into the valley, 
I examined the country in the vicinity of 
the city with the view of selecting a proper 
military site. I visited the military re- 
serve, Rush valley, but found it, in my 
opinion, entirely unsuitable for a military 
station. It contains but little grass and 
is very much exposed to the cold winds 
of winter; its only advantage being the 
close proximity of fine wood. It is too 
far from the city, being between forty and 
forty-five miles, and will require teams 
four days to go there and return. I ex- 
amined another point on the road to 
Rush valley, and only about thirty miles 
from the city, which I consider a much 
more eligible position. It is in Tooele val- 
ley,three miles to the north of Tooele city, 
and possesses wood, water and grass; 
but it is occupied by the Mormons, who 
have some sixty acres under cultivation, 
with houses and barns on their land. 
These persons would have to be dispos- 
sessed or bought out. In fact there is no 
place within forty, fifty or sixty miles of 
the city, suitable for a military position, 
that is not occupied by the inhabitants 
and under cultivation. Finding that I 
could neither make the purchases ordered 
to, nor shake the determination of the 
people to resist the authority of the 
United States, I left the city and returned 
to my camp on Ham's Fork. On my return 
I examined the vicinity of Fort Bridger, 
and found it a very suitable position for 
wintering the troops and grazing the ani- 
mals, should it be necessary to stop at 
that point. The Mormons occupy the 
fort at present, and also have a settlement 
about ten miles further up Black's fork, 



FORMATION OF SOIL. 



149 



called Fort Supply. These two places 
contain buildings sufficient to cover near- 
ly half the troops now en route for Utah; 
but I was informed that they would all be 
laid in ashes as the army advances. I 
have thus stated fully the result of my 



visit to Utah, and, trusting that my con- 
duct will meet the approval of the com- 
manding general, I am, very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

Stewart Van Vliet, 

Captain, A. Q. M. 



FORMATION OF SOIL. 



The different kinds of soil are formed, 
with but few exceptions, by the gradual 
wearing away and decay of rocks. This 
may not seem so evident that we can pass 
over it without proof. In most cases, as 
soon as the rock is transformed into soil, 
it is washed away by water and soon 
carried far away from the place of its 
origin, so that we have some difficulty 
in finding out how it was formed, but in 
some places, the soil remains where it 
is formed, and here we can trace every 
change from perfect soil to hard rock 
below. Very often in such soil veins of 
flint or hard rock will be found running 
through the soil, and down into the bed 
of the rock below, showing that they 
were once imbedded in solid rock al- 
together, but being harder than the sur- 
rounding material, they resisted the action 
of the soil forming agents, while the 
material around them decayed. Again the 
soil in our valleys and plains, continues 
to increase from one year to another by 
deposits brought down by the rivers and 
mountain streams, that come from parts 
that are made up wholly of rock, which 
must therefore gradually wear out, and 
be carried down by the water. 

The agents that bring about these 
changes exist mostly in the atmosphere. 
They are oxygen, a gas that produces 
nearly all the decay that we notice going 
on around us, as the rusting of iron and 
rotting of wood, and vegetable matter; 
carbonic acid gas, a substance which, 
together with water, makes many hard 
rocks soluble; watery vapor in the at- 
mosphere, existing in greater or less 
quantity according to the temperature 
and other causes; and sometimes am- 
monia and other substances in small 
quantities. 



The depth of the soil depends to a 
great extent on the slope of the parent 
rock. Where there is little slope, the 
soil is likely to remain there and ac- 
cumulate in almost any quantity, but 
where the slope is great, it is sure to be 
wasted away by rain or melting snows, 
and hence will not accumulate at all 
where it is formed, but will be carried 
away by the water, and deposited in the 
mouth of some stream, in the ocean or 
in the bottom of some lake, where it 
may collect to an immense thickness. 

The process of decay would be very 
slow, if rocks could not be penetrated by 
air and water, and the disintegration, 
could take place only on the surface, but, 
all rocks are broken up more or less into 
blocks, by cracks running in different 
directions, and besides this they are 
usually composed of porous material, 
so that there is abundant opportunity for 
the different agents to find there way to 
the inside, and there carry on their work 
of destruction. Now rocks are com- 
posed of different compounds united to- 
gether in different ways. Some of these 
compounds can be dissolved in water, 
and the others being left without anything 
to hold them together, become loose 
soil. 

Granite contains, principally, mica, 
quartz and feldspar. The quartz is per- 
fectly insoluble, the mica may be acted 
on by the disintegrating agents, but, the 
change can take place only at a very 
slow rate, but the feldspar is much more 
easily acted upon by these agents, at 
least a part of it is and this part being 
dissolved loosens the whole mass and 
changes it into a bed of clay; the part of 
the feldspar, that was not dissolved, 
grains of sand, or the small particles of 



i5o 



FORMATION OF SOIL. 



quartz, and bright scales of mica, 
we always see in sand and clay. In all 
countries, when the rocks are composed 
of granite, the soil is just what we have 
described it to be above. In volcanic 
regions the soil is also very much the 
same, as the lava thrown out generally 
contains a great deal of clay. 

Limestone is generally composed of 
small grains united together by means of 
a cement of the same kind of material. 
This cement can not be dissolved in 
water alone, but when carbonic acid is 
mixed with it, then the cement can be 
easily dissolved, and the rock falls to 
pieces in the shape of soil. The car- 
bonic acid that is always found in the air, 
is carried down into the rock along 
with the water that may pass through 
the air as rain, or that may exist as a 
part of the air, in the form of watery 
vapor; sometimes the limestone contains 
sand and clay and as these are not 
changed by the action of the water or 
carbonic acid, hence the soil is not 
wholly limestone but contains also these 
impurities. 

Sandstones consist of grains of sand 
cemented together by means of lime- 
stone or an oxide of iron. In the 
former case the limestone is easily dis- 
solved out, and a mass of sand remains; 
but in the second case the oxide of iron 
is almost unchangeable, and hence a 
sandstone whose parts are cemented to- 
gether by this substance, becomes one of 
the most useful of our building stones, 
as for instance the red sandstone, which, 
though it is very easily cut, is yet acted 
upon with great difficulty by these agents 
mentioned above, and in this respect it is 
quite different from granite, which is 
very hard to cut, but soon loses a smooth 
polish by the action of the atmosphere. 
When slates decay they generally form 
a pure clay, as the cementing material is 
usually nothing more than limestone. 
Most soils are composed generally of a 
mixture of most of the simple forms that 
have been mentioned above, as they are 
carried about from one place to another 
by water, and thus become thoroughly 
mixed with each other. 

Besides these simple ingredients men- 



tioned above, the decay of vegetable 
matter forms a large part of fertile soils, 
and also gives them their black color. 
The leaves and stems of plants falling to 
the ground, in the process of decay, are 
partly turned to charcoal, which being 
nearly indestructible remains behind, and 
thus colors the soil. It is of great im- 
portance preserving for the plants that 
may grow in the immediate vicinity, large 
quantities of ammonia, a compound that 
is of the first importance in the develop- 
ment of all forms of vegetation. Char- 
coal contains a great many pores, and 
these have a wonderful power of absorb- 
ing gasses, so that when plants decay, 
the charcoal that is left behind immediate- 
ly takes up the ammonia as soon as it is 
formed, and there holds it in readiness 
to be absorbed by water, and thus car- 
ried into the circulation of the plant, 
where it can be used. This vegetable 
mould, from the explanation just given, 
you will know, is found only near the 
surface, where the vegetable matter de- 
cays. 

When those substances that are neces- 
sary for the growth of certain plants 
have been exhausted, many ways are 
employed to restore what was taken 
away. In some few places on the earth's 
surface, crops may be raised from one 
season to another, and there seems to be 
no exhaustion, this is no doubt caused by 
the fact, that just as fast as the plant 
takes out what it needs, the rocks by 
their decay restore what was lost. Thus 
near Rome excellent crops of wheat are 
raised now, on soil cultivated by the 
Romans over two thousand years ago, 
and from that time down to the present. 
In other cases rivers bring down new 
layers at different times, and thus re- 
plenish the soil, as in the valley of the 
Nile, where crops have been raised from 
one year to another, as long as history 
has preserved any record. 

Another method of preserving the fer- 
tility of the soil, is by rotation of crops; 
that is planting one season a crop that 
will take from the soil a certain ingred- 
ient, and the next season a crop that will 
take out a different ingredient, so as to 
give time for the first to be formed in 



APOSTACY. 



151 



sufficient quantity by the wearing away 
of the rocks. In order to carry out this 
method successfully, one must be well 
acquainted with the chemical constituents 
of the soil and plants, and thus we see 
that to secure the greatest advantages 
from the soil, the study of chemistry is 
a valuable assistant. Large tracts of 
land are sometimes allowed to lie idle 
for a number of years, in order to re- 
cover, in the manner explained above, 
what they have lost by exhaustion. 

Soils are sometimes produced with the 
assistance of other agencies, as, for in- 
stance, frost in cold countries. Rocks 
are penetrated by water through their 
pores and fissures, and then the cold 
freezes the water, expands it, and causes 
the rock to crumble in pieces. The ex- 
pansion and contraction produced by 
heat and cold produce the same result 
only in a less marked degree. In St. 
Petersburg where they have great ex- 
tremes between summer and winter, and 
where there is always plenty of moisture 
in the atmosphere, a building will decay 
more in fifty years, than one in Egypt 
will in three thousand years. In the lat- 
ter country they have no rain, and the 
temperature remains nearly the same all 
the year round. J. B. Toronto. 



THE LAWYER'S FEE. 
There is a good story of a cotton 
speculator who once paid a fee several 
times greater than his lawyer expected. 
Soon after the fall of Vicksburg, he be- 
came involved with the authorities, who 
charged him with fraud. His cotton, 



which was worth a large sum of money, 
being seized, he sought the aid of Mr. 
Geiger, an influential Ohio lawyer, then 
visiting the city. 

The lawyer in one day satisfied the 
authorities that there was no fraud, and 
secured the release of the cotton. The 
speculator was gratified, and informed 
Mr. Geiger that he would see him the 
next morning after he had finished load- 
ing his cotton on a steamboat. 

The lawyer retired, but not to sleep. 
He was debating with himself what he 
should charge his client. The amount 
involved was large, the speculator would 
make a handsome fortune, and Geiger 
thought five hundred dollars would not 
be an unreasonable fee for his services. 
But in the morning, the sum seemed 
so great for one day's work, that he 
feared to ask it. 

In this frame of mind, while walking 
out towards the steamer, which was to 
carry off the cotton, he met the speculator. 

"Well, Mr. Geiger, that was a good 
day's work you did for me yesterda)'," 
said the client, taking from his pocket a 
large roll of bank-notes. 

Holding up one knee, he thereon 
counted off four five-hundred-dollar bills, 
and without looking up at the lawyer, 
asked, "Is that enough?" 

Geiger looked on speechless for a 
moment, but recovering himself, said, 
with the habitual coolness of a lawyer, — 

"I guess you had better lay on an- 
other!" 

It was laid on, and Geiger, putting the 
two thousand five hundred dollars in his 
pocket bid the speculator good-bye. 



APOSTACY. 



The subject of the apostacy occupies 
the minds of people of modern times 
but very little. This however is not sur- 
prising when we consider their views re- 
lating to the Church of Christ; for they 
claim a continuation of Divine Author- 
ity and the plan of salvation, from the 
apostolic age to the present time, the 
idea prevailing among them that the 



Bible alone is a sufficient guide, without 
immediate and continued revelation. In 
this respect the position of the Latter- 
day Saints is widely different from all 
other religious denominations now extant, 
bearing no relationship to any religious 
sect, but on the other hand declaring in 
words of soberness, that our Heavenly 
Father has restored the Gospel by mod- 



152 



APOSTACY. 



em revelation, to the Prophet Joseph 
Smith. This being true there must have 
been a departure from the true order of 
the Gospel. 

To prove that such is the case, we will 
refer to the predictions of holy writ, 
"Knowing this first, that no prophecy of 
the scripture is of any private interpre- 
tation, for the prophecy came not in old 
time by the will of man ; but holy men of 
God spake as they were moved by the 
Holy Ghost." The Savior said when 
addressing his disciples: "And then shall 
many be offended and shall betray one 
another, and shall hate one another and 
many false prophets shall rise and shall 
deceive many, and because iniquity shall 
abound, the love of many shall wax 
cold." — Matthew xxiv, 10-12. 

To this testimony of Matthew con- 
cerning the words of the Savior in rela- 
tion to the subject under consideration 
there will be found the corresponding 
testimonies of Mark and Luke. It will 
be remembered that this testimony of 
the Lord was in answer to a very impor- 
tant question. When he had foretold 
the overthrow of the Temple, His apos- 
tles asked Him: "When shall these 
things be, and what shall be the sign of 
Thy coming, and of the end of the 
world?" The appearance of false pro- 
prophets; the deception of many; the 
martyrdom of the Apostles ; the betrayal 
of the saints, one of another; the love 
of many waxing cold; the overwhelming 
prevalence of iniquity; the universal 
discord and contentions of the nations, 
all were to be prominent events to trans- 
pire before the advent of the Savior to 
reign in power and glory upon the earth. 

To this we will add the words of Paul: 
"Now we beseech you brethren, by the 
coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
by our gathering together unto him, that 
ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be 
troubled, neither by spirit nor by word, 
nor by letter as from us, as that the day 
of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive 
you by any means, for that day shall not 
come except there come a falling away 
first, and that man of sin be revealed, 
the son of perdition." — 2 Thes. ii, 1-8. 

It is evident from the above that some 



were likely to be deceived with regard to 
the time of His second coming. Paul 
to prevent their being misled by false 
teachers who were likely predicting the 
Saviors advent, testified that there should 
come a "falling away first." The lan- 
guage is so express that one can read- 
ily see, that nothing but a departure from 
the unchangeable plan of salvation 
would fulfil this prediction. We read 
in the Scriptures that "God hath set some 
in the Church, first apostles, secondarily 
Prophets," and other officers, all of 
whom were divinely inspired "for the 
work of the ministry," with spiritual gifts 
following the baptized believers. Only 
a short time elapsed, however, before 
these officers, principles, gifts and bless- 
ings mentioned in the New Testament, 
were not to be found in the midst 
of the earth, and when we examine 
the religious institutions of the present 
time, no where are they now to be found 
save with the Latter-day Saints. The 
present generation then is as those of 
many centuries past have been, living 
witnesses to the verification of the words 
we have quoted. 

When Paul was about to depart 
from Miletus, he called unto him the 
Elders of the Church from the city of 
Ephesus, and in his farewell address he 
warned them as appears in the following 
words, "For I know this, that after my 
departing shall grievous wolves enter 
in among you, not sparing the flock, 
also of your own selves shall men arise 
speaking perverse things, to draw away 
disciples after them," Acts xx, 29, 30. 
As an evidence that this prophecy was 
being verified, and that as early as the 
time of the Apostle John's banishment 
upon the Isle of Patmos, we will quote 
from the second chapter of Revelations 
first and fifth verses: "Unto the angel 
of the Church of Ephesus write; * * * 
Remember therefore from whence thou 
art fallen, and repent and do the first 
works." By reading the second verse 
we discover that false teachers had 
arisen among the people, professing to 
be apostles, thus verifying the words of 
Paul. By reading the context we dis- 
cover that similar reproofs were meted 



RETROSPECTION. 



153 



out to most of the branches of the 
Church in Asia, because they were de- 
parting from the truth. 

Peter, also, the presiding Apostle, has 
spoken very plainly relating to the 
Apostacy. Beginning with the first 
verse of the second chapter of his 
second epistle, we read. "But there were 
false prophets also among the people, 
even as there shall be false teachers 
among you, who privily shall bring in 
damnable heresies, even denying the 
Lord that bought them, and bring upon 
themselves swift destruction, and many 
shall follow their pernicious ways, by rea- 
son of whom the way of truth shall be 
evil spoken of, and through covetous- 
ness shall they with feigned words make 
merchandize of you, whose judgment 
now of a long time lingereth not and 
their damnation slumbereth not." From 
this we learn not only that false teachers 
should arise among the people, but that 
they should succeed in deceiving the 
people and causing many to follow 
their pernicious ways. In connection 
with this part of the subject, Paul says 
to Timothv; "For the time will come 



when they will not endure sound doc- 
trine, but after their own lusts shall they 
heap to themselves teachers, having itch- 
ing ears, and they shall turn away their 
ears from the truth and shall be turned 
unto fables," 2 Timothy, iv, 3, 4. Thus it 
is clearly stated not only that men should 
arise "speaking perverse things," and 
succeed in their evil designs in making 
innovations upon the teachings of the 
Apostles, but that the people themselves 
would be so allured from the way of life 
as to heap unto themselves these false 
teachers, so that many would adhere to 
their spurious doctrines. The terms 
heap and many do not signify a few but 
a great number. 

The above quotations from the holy 
Scriptures bear especially upon the inter- 
nal eruptions, that occurred in the Church, 
causing many to depart from the straight 
and narrow path, which leadeth unto 
life eternal. Those causes, which create 
internal division and discord in the midst 
of the Saints are the worst of all causes, 
for "A house divided against itself 
cannot stand." 

Matthias F. Cowley. 



RETROSPECTION. 



The pale, dull sun of February- 
Tinging with mellow light, 

The landscape drear, and mountain tops, 
Grand in their sheen of white, 

Lights up the day with glim'ring ray, 
And fadeth into night. 

The shadows lay along the walls, 
Gloomy and dark they seem, 

And fitfully the sunset rays, 
Adown the casement stream, 

And the tired mind to rest inclin'd; 
Would fain at twilight dream. 

Call up some vision of the past 

Glowing with life and light, 
Some rosy-hued and brilliant scene 

In dazzling splendor bright; 
A pleasant phase, of other days, 

And friends now lost to sight. 

Ah! pause — for from the years gone by 

A dear familiar face, 
The twilight shrouds in shadow, 



And seemingly we trace 
The outlines clear, of one most dear, 
Crowned with a mystic grace. 

And thoughts rush back the long ago, 

And we hasten as of yore, 
To catch the music of the hours, 

That will return no more; 
And 'mid the flow'rs of childhood's bowr's, 

Our hearts are gushing o'er. 

We close the ideal vision, 

With memories so replete; 
And fancy the night-wind sighing 

A requiem low and sweet; 
And as we part, the tear-drops start, 

The spell is so complete. 

We'll meet the absent one again; 

O faith thy glorious ray, 
Brighter than sunshine floods the soul, 

And lights the darkest day 
With beams divine, that constant shine, 

Athwart the roughest way. 

Emtnelinc B. Wells. 



154 



EDITORIAL. 



THE CONTRIBUTOR. 

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE. 

JUNIUS F. WELLS, 

Editor and Publisher. 

terms: 

Two Dollars a Year, - In Advance. 
Single Copy, Twenty Cents. 

Salt Lake City, February, 1882. 

MEMORIALS TO CONGRESS. 

The passage by the Senate of the 
United States of the Edmunds bill, the 
full text of which was received by tele- 
graph, thoroughly awakened the people 
of our Territory to the enormous wrongs 
threatened to be perpetrated upon us, 
and to the necessity of more fully re- 
presenting our position and our claims 
for fair treatment. With this object in 
view the officers of the Relief Society, 
and the Young Men's and Young Ladies' 
Mutual Improvement Associations and 
a select committee, representing the 
citizens in general, were requested to 
prepare suitable petitions to Congress, 
setting forth, briefly, the feelings of all 
classes of our population and requesting 
that honorable body to pause and inves- 
tigate before legislating away the rights 
of an innocent and upright community. 

These committees met on Monday, 
February 20th, and compared the various 
petitions they had prepared. On that 
occasion President John Taylor made 
the following remarks: 

It has been thought proper that the 
Relief Society and the Young Men's and 
Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement 
Associations each get up a petition to 
Congress, and lay before that body the 
position we occupy in relation to the 
matters that are disturbing the nation, to 
present to them a few salient points, 
that they may be able to act advisedly. 

We call upon these various societies to 
circulate the petitions, to have the whole 
Territory canvassed and the signatures 
of all connected with our associations, 
as well as any others who may wish to 



sign them, procured. We will then for- 
ward the petitions to Congress. 

It is better in the midst of this excite- 
ment caused by so many falsehoods and 
mendacious statements of priests and 
politicians, all of whom are seeking our 
destruction, for us, at least, to lay before 
Congress the facts, plainly and definitely, 
that they may have the opportunity to 
judge from fact instead of falsehood 
and misrepresentation. When we have 
done this we shall then feel we have done 
our duty to God, our brethren and the 
world and we shall leave the event in the 
hands of God, for Him to act as may 
seem best in His sight. I would state 
that we have no fears as to the result; 
the crisis has to come sometime. We 
have to be brought to the test and this 
nation has to be brought to the test. 
Whether this is the time or not it is not 
for me to say. If it is, we are perhaps 
as well prepared to meet it now as we 
will be at any other time. As for my- 
self I do not feel to shrink from results. 
We know this kingdom will roll forth. 
We know that Zion will be established. 
We know the nations will be overthrown 
and that God's rule will be introduced 
and that it will pravail. 

When Israel was oppressed in Egypt 
they did not dictate to the Almighty as 
to the course they should pursue, but He 
dictated to Israel. They acted their part 
and were willing to carry out His will. 
We wish to act our part and stand ready 
to carry out the word and will of God. 
We go in for liberty, freedom and hu- 
man rights for all men, and when the 
kingdon of God is established all men 
will possess their rights; the right to 
worship God as they please, the right of 
franchise and all other inalienable rights 
pertaining to the human family. It is 
for us to struggle for these principles, 
and while we wish to cast no aspersions 
on the rulers of the government, at the 
same time we wish to lay before them, 
respectfully, our views, protesting against 
unconstitutional measures that men seek 
to bring upon us. 

The Young Men's and Young Ladies' 
petitions, before this will be read, will 
have been circulated throughout the 



EDITORIAL. 



155 



Territory, by express and telegraph, and 
will have received, doubtless, ten thous- 
and signatures each. They are as fol- 
lows: 

To the Honorable the Senate and 
House of Representatives in Congress 
Assembled: 

Your petitioners, the young men of the 
Territory of Utah respectfully represent: 
That our present interests and future 
prospects in life are dependent upon the 
undisturbed peace and prosperity of our 
Territory. 

That we are the sons of parents who 
have braved the dangers and overcome 
the difficulties incident to pioneering and 
settling a new, sterile and forbidding 
country; who have made human habita- 
tion in the valleys of the great Rocky 
Mountain basin a possibility; who have 
labored with untiring industry under many 
hardships to create homes for their 
families, in which we have been nurtured 
and cared for; who have denied them- 
selves many comforts to educate and 
train their children in useful arts and 
industries ; who have ever thrown around 
our paths in life the benign influences of 
home — there are no homeless children 
in Utah — of religion, of industry, of 
honor, of patriotism and the broadest and 
kindest expressions of humanity; who 
have shielded us from the groveling forms 
of vice that tempt and allure to destruc- 
tion the unprotected and disowned, who, 
without name or home, lie in the streets 
of the great cities and upon the highways 
of the outside world, a reproach to 
civilization and mankind. 

Under the protection, wise legislation 
and humane administration of our fathers, 
our Territory enjoys the blessings of 
peace and abundance, and we have been 
started upon the highroad of prosperity 
and success with bodies untainted by 
disease, with hearts in which faith and the 
consciousness of divine approval dwell, 
with minds open to conviction of truth 
and untrammelled by dogmas or super- 
stitions that clog progressive thought 
and fill the soul with fear. We love 
and honor our parents, who have thus 
provided in our childhood for our welfare 
in active life. 



Now, therefore, in duty to them and 
ourselves, having the continued peace 
and prosperity of our Territory at heart 
and valuing liberty and the rights of 
conscience above life, we, the young men 
of Utah, earnestly remonstrate against 
the calumnies and misrepresentations of 
unprincipled men, who would have the 
world believe that we are curtailed in the 
enjoyment of American freedom and fet- 
tered in chains forged by priestly fana- 
tics. 

We deny that undue influence is ex- 
ercised by any authority over our thoughts 
or actions. 

We deny that duty to our religion and 
to our country leads us in opposite direc- 
tions, or that it can possibly do so while 
the charter of American liberty remains 
the supreme law. 

We deny that the religious institution 
of plural marriage, as practised by our 
parents, and to which many of us owe 
our existence, debases, pollutes, or in any 
way degrades those who enter into it. 
On the contrary we solemnly affirm, and 
challenge successful contradiction, that 
plural marriage is a sacred religious 
ordinance and that its practice has 
given to thousands honorable names and 
peaceful homes, where Christian precepts 
and virtuous practices have been uniform- 
ly inculcated and the spirit of human 
liberty and religious freedom fostered 
from the cradle to maturity. 

In consideration of these facts, and in 
the name of justice we hereby solemnly 
memorialize your honorable body to re- 
frain from enacting laws that reflect upon 
the marital relations of our parents, and 
that, however specific the provisions to 
the contrary, stigmatize us in the opinion 
of the world; to refrain from enacting 
laws that will enslave a large proportion 
of the citizens of our Territory, that will 
gall and fret the spirit of liberty which 
we inherit and are bound to entertain 
and that will take from us, for no offense, 
the privileges and blessings of local free 
government, so necessary to the happi- 
ness and well being of an American 
community. 

We ask you to secure to us the rights 
the liberties and the blessings of freemen 



156 



IN MEMORIAM. 



and to pause before foisting upon us 
an unrepublican government, placing 
strangers, by appointment, to rule over 
us, and sacrificing the interests, the feel- 
ings, the happiness and freedom of the 
great majority of the citizens of our 
Territory to the greed and cupidity of a 
reckless minority; and your petitioners 
as in duty bound will ever pray. 

To the Honorable the Senate and 
House of Representatives in Congress 
Assembled: 

Whereas, Certain bills are now pending 
before your honorable body, which, if 
passed, will break up happy homes and 
families and produce untold misery, 
sorrow and suffering; will deprive us of 
the kind, fostering care of honorable, 
upright, God-fearing fathers, and drive 
forth our precious, loving mothers as 
outcasts ; as those who have no right to 
the honored name of wife, and also cast 
opprobrium upon many of us as illegiti- 
mate; and, 

Whereas, The passage of such bills 
would deprive our fathers, mothers and 
brothers (and ourselves, when properly 
qualified) of the right of franchise, and, 
in fact, of all the rights of American 
citizens, debarring us of the free exercise 
of our holy religion, which is dearer to 
us than life itself; and would be contrary 
to the spirit of the glorious Constitution 
of our country, which we have ever been 
taught to revere as an inspiration from 
Almighty God: for we have been taught, 
and conscientiously believe that plural 
marriage is as much a part of our religion, 
as are faith, repentance and baptism; and, 



Whereas, In our opinion, the cause of 
the introduction of such bills has been 
the false representations of evil disposed 
persons, who assert we are low, ignorant, 
degraded and disloyal; and, feeling 
assured that, had your honorable body 
been truthfully advised in regard to the 
people of this Territory, such bills would 
never have obtained a hearing in the 
Congress of this mighty nation; 

Now, therefore, we, the young ladies 
of Utah Territory, do most solemnly 
and truthfully declare that neither we nor 
our mothers are held in bondage, but 
that we enjoy the greatest possible 
freedom socially and religiously; that 
our homes are happy ones, and we are 
neither low nor degraded; for the 
principles of purity, virtue, integrity and 
loyalty to the government of the United 
States have been instilled into our minds 
and hearts since our earliest childhood. 

According to what we read, and can 
learn from other sources, in no place in 
the world is female chastity and virtue 
guarded with more jealous care than by 
our people ; for we have been taught and 
do understand that this is our greatest 
boon; far above jewels or wealth, and 
more precious than life itself; and we 
therefore most respectfully memorialize 
your honorable body to suspend further 
action on all bills relating to Utah, and 
send a commission of honorable, intelli- 
gent, and unprejudiced men and women 
to inquire into, and learn the true state 
of affairs in this Territory; 

And as in duty bound,your memorialists 
will ever pray. 



IN MEMORIAM. 



ELIZABETH ANN WHITNEY. 

With heartfelt grief, we chronicle the 
death of our beloved friend and coun- 
selor, Mother Whitney. Of all women, 
none were purer or better; among the 
first to embrace the everlasting Gospel, 
and always faithful and true to the prin- 
ciples, she, in her early youth, had 
espoused. Oftentimes has it been said, 
and truly said, Mother Whitney is more 



like an angel from heaven than a crea- 
ture of this earth; her influence and 
spirit were so beautiful, that to be near 
her, seemed nearer heaven; her charac- 
ter was the gentlest and noblest of 
womankind, always cheerful and hope- 
ful in the darkest and dreariest scenes ; 
never^despairing nor complaining; she 
had always a word of rest for the weary, 
comfort for the heartsick, and possessed 



IN MEMORIAM. 



157 



the power of consoling others to such 
an extent, that she was often called the 
"comforter." 

This great and noble woman has now 
left this earth and gone to a brighter 
realm, where she will receive the reward 
for all her good deeds here on earth. 
She was gifted in language and exceed- 
ingly attractive in person; her coun- 
tenance ever seemed to shine with the 
light of the Holy Spirit; her soul was 
one of those bright and shining lights 
that seem to make heaven more beauti- 
ful by their presence. 

Mother Whitney was born in the be- 
ginning of the present century, Decem- 
ber 26, 1800, in Derby, New Haven 
County, Connecticut; her parents were 
Gibson and Polly Bradley Smith. The 
Smith's was one of the oldest fami- 
lies in the country. She was the eldest 
child, and her youth was a perfect 
springtime of love and happiness. When 
eighteen years of age, she accompanied 
a maiden aunt to Ohio, and as she after- 
wards decided to remain there, it so 
happened that she never saw her dear 
mother again. Early in her sojourn in 
Ohio, she became acquainted with a 
young and prosperous merchant, Newel 
K. Whitney, to whom she was afterwards 
married, October 20, 1822, in Kirtland, 
where they made their future home. 

Both she and her husband became 
members of the Campbellite church, but 
although they revered this faith, they 
still sought for something better. They 
believed in the laying on of hands and in 
the gifts of the spirit, but no one having 
authority in their church to confer those 
gifts, they prayed to the Lord for the 
Holy Spirit, such as they read of the 
ancients having received. While they 
were praying together a cloud seemed to 
rest over the house, the walls vanished 
and it seemed as if they were out in the 
open air. The cloud covered them and 
they felt the spirit of the Lord upon 
them, while a solemn awe pervaded them 
and they heard a voice saying, "Prepare 
ye to receive the word of the Lord, for 
it is coming." Soon after this the Gos- 
pel was brought to Kirtland by Parley 
P. Pratt, and both she and her husband 



were baptized and confirmed, Novem- 
ber 1830. Their home was a place of rest 
for the elders; and Joseph Smith, the 
prophet, made it his home when he first 
came to Kirtland, and an everlasting love 
and friendship was formed between the 
two families. 

Often afterwards in the hours of trial 
and persecution did the Prophet find re- 
fuge, comfort and solace under their roof. 
I remember when very young of hearing 
her relate a little incident illustrating 
the power of and the faith that she al- 
ways had in children's prayers. One 
night when the mob were in search 
of the Prophet, and he had taken re- 
fuge in her home, the little children 
gathered in one of the rooms and 
prayed, as they often did, that the 
Prophet might be unmolested and rest 
there in ] peace. They all knelt down 
and prayed earnestly to the Lord and 
said they could not rise until they had a 
testimony. Very soon one of the child- 
ren rose from her knees saying "I have 
the spirit, brother Joseph will be safe." 
The Prophet and Brother and Sister 
Whitney had been standing at the door 
and when Joseph heard this, he turned 
to Bishop Whitney and said, while his 
eyes were filled with tears: "You need 
not hide me to-night, I will be per- 
fectly safe." What a beautiful humble 
spirit is manifested in these few words. 
This is only one of many like manifes- 
tations to the children in those days. 
Joseph delighted in little children and 
had more faith in their sweet humble 
prayers than in any others. Mother Whit- 
ney was one of the first women who ever 
had her endowments, and among the 
first who ever officiated in a temple, she 
was the very first to officiate in the 
house of the Lord in this city, where 
she continued to labor until her health 
would no longer permit. She has blessed 
thousands of the daughters of Zion. 

Mother Whitney had one of the sweet- 
est and most pathetic voices in the world, 
often in days of persecution when the 
Prophet Joseph was sorrowful, cast down 
and weary, he would ask her to sing to 
him that he might forget his grief. 
When the gift of tongues was given to 



158 



IN MEMORIAM. 



her, her spirit burst forth in hymns of re- 
joicing and songs of praise. She has 
always at times exercised this gift until 
the time of her death. The Prophet 
promised this rare gift should never 
leave her if she was wise in the exercise 
thereof, and if she remained true to her 
covenants. He also said that it was the 
pure Adamic language, that which was 
spoken in the garden of Eden. If all 
the hymns and poems were written as 
they were interpreted at the time when 
she sang them, they would make a 
beautiful volume. 

In 1838, Sister Whitney left her home 
and was intending to go to Missouri, but 
in consequence of the persecutions there, 
she was obliged to stay in Carleton, 
Illinois. Many of her friends, when she 
left Kirtland, never expected she could 
live through such a journey, and it was 
only by her unbounded faith in God that 
she was enabled to do so. She stayed 
in Carleton that year, while her husband 
went back to Kirtland on business, and 
was left entirely alone with a family of 
little children; her oldest son, then 
eighteen years of age, taught school, and 
helped to support the family. 

In the spring of 1839, Bishop Whitney 
and family went up to Commerce. In 
Nauvoo, Mother Whitney endured all 
that it was possible for anyone to endure, 
but was always cheerful and happy 
through it all. When the Relief Society 
was organized by Joseph Smith in 
Nauvoo, Mother Whitney was chosen 
as first counselor to the president, Emma 
Smith. She crossed the Mississippi 
River on the ice with a family of small 
children, when the Saints were driven 
from Nauvoo; she was - the mother of 
eleven children, six now living; she had 
thirty-two grandchildren and thirteen 
great-grandchildren; her two oldest 
sons, Horace and Orson, were among 
the Pioneers of 1847. Their father and 
the family came to the valley with Heber 
C. Kimball's company in 1848. Bishop 
Whitney died in 1850. 

Mother Whitney died February 15, 
1882, at ten minutes past two p.m., at 
the residence of her son-in-law, Isaac 
Groo, in this city, after an illness of four 



weeks; she lived to finish her work here 
on earth, and was ready and willing to 
be gathered home to the Savior's bosom. 
Oh that we might all live a life as pure 
and sinless! That when we are called to 
go, we may say as she did, "The 
Lord's time is the best time," and "I 
want to suffer all that I ought to suffer." 

Louie Wells. 



There is a fable among the Hindoos 
that a thief, having been detected and 
condemned to die, happily hit on an 
expedient which gave him hope of life. 
He sent for the jailor and told him he had 
a secret of great importance which he de- 
sired to impart to the king, and when 
this had been done he would be prepared 
to die. After receiving this piece of in- 
telligence the king ordered the culprit to 
be conducted to his presence, and 
demanded of him to know his secret. 
The culprit replied that he knew the 
secret of causing a tree to grow which 
would bear fruit of pure gold. The 
experiment might be easily tried, and his 
majesty would not lose the opportunity. 
The king, accompanied by his prime 
minister, his courtiers and his chief priest 
went with the thief to a spot selected near 
the city wall, where the latter performed 
a series of incantations. This done, the 
condemned man produced a piece of gold, 
and declared that if it should be planted, 
it would produce a tree, every branch of 
which would bear gold. 

"But," he added, "this must be put into 
the ground by a hand that has never been 
stained by a dishonest act. My hand is 
not clean; therefore I pass it to your 
majesty." 

The king took the piece of gold, but 
hesitated. Finally he said: "I remem- 
ber in my younger days, that I often 
filched money from my father's treasury 
which was not mine. I have repented 
of the sin, but yet I hardly dare to say 
my hand is clean. I pass it to my prime 
minister." 

The prime minister, after a brief con- 
sideration, answered: "It were a pity 
to break the charm through a possible 
blunder. I receive taxes from the 
people, and, as I am exposed to a great 



ASSOCIATION INTELLIGENCE. 



159 



many temptations, how can I be sure 
that I have been always perfectly 
honest? I must give it to the governor 
of the citadel." 

"No,no!" cried the governor, drawing 
back. "Remember that I have the serv- 
ing out of pay and provisions to the 
soldiers. Get the high priest to plant it." 

The priest said: "You forget that I 
have the collecting of tithes; and the 
disbursements for sacrifices." 

The thief exclaimed at length: "Your 



majesty, I 'think it were better for 
society that all five of us should be 
hanged, since it appears that not an hon- 
est man can be found among us." 

In spite of the lamentable exposure, 
the king laughed; and so pleased was 
he with the thiefs cunning expedient, 
that he at once granted him a pardon. 



None so poor as he that feels poor. 
A stingy man cannot be a happy one. 



ASSOCIATION INTELLIGENCE. 



QUARTERLY CONFERENCE. 

The ccnference of the Y. M. M. I. A., 
of Salt Lake Stake was held in the 
Assembly Hall, Sunday, January 22, 
1882. Superintended Joseph H. Felt, 
presiding. It was the first conference of 
the kind held in the city, to which the 
whole day was devoted. Eighteen of 
the city and four of the county associa- 
tions had representatives present. 

The morning exercises were com- 
menced by singing, and prayer by Elder 
George Goddard, and consisted of the 
reading of the minutes of the previous 
conference, and of a statistical and 
financial report, and addresses by Supt. 
Felt, Sisters E, S. Taylor, Mary Freeze, 

E. B. Wells and Elder J. H. Moyle, all 
of whose remarks were excellent, touch- 
ing upon the improvement which had 
been accomplished through the associa- 
tions, and also the great work yet to be 
done in educating the young people at 
home in the principles of the Gospel. 

The General and Stake officers were 
presented and unanimously sustained. 
The Stake officers as follows: Joseph 
H. Felt, Superintendent; George C. 
Lambert and John W. Taylor, Counsel- 
ors, John A. Evans, Secretary; Rudger 
Clawson, Treasurer. 

At the afternoon meeting highly in- 
teresting remarks were made by Presi- 
dents Wilford Woodruff, Joseph F. Smith 
and John Taylor, in the order named. 
They were followed by Elders Junius 

F. Wells, Royal B. Young and Rodney 



C. Badger, each of whom bore testi- 
mony of the truth of the Gospel and 
proclaimed in behalf of the youth of 
Zion that they would follow in the foot- 
steps of their parents. 

The proceedings of the two meetings 
were extremely interesting, and all felt 
that a time of great benefit had been 
enjoyed, and expressed the hope that the 
conferences in the future might be ex- 
tended over the whole day, allowing suf- 
ficient time for reports of officers and 
the imparting of needful instructions. 
The exercises were reported in full by 
the secretary, but are too lengthy for 
insertion. The conference adjourned 
subject to the call of the Stake Superin- 
tendency. 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. 

i. To open a northwest passage from 
Europe to the East has been an object 
of Arctic explorations. The possibility 
of a new continent occupied by the lost 
tribes of Israel has lent great interest to 
researches, and the proximity of the 
Pole to inhabited countries has made it 
more approachable. On the other hand 
the south pole is removed by almost a 
hemisphere of water and ice from the 
civilized or inhabited world, navigation 
is impossible for many degrees farther 
from the pole, and it lacks the features 
of utility or interest which scientists 
attach to the frozen north. N E. 

2. On the continent of America, 
there were anciently three distinct colon- 



i6o 



A SSO CIA TION INTELLIGENCE. 



ies, namely the Jaredites, the Nephites 
and a colony led out from Jerusalem by 
Mulek, in the eleventh year of the reign 
of Zedekiah. Book of Omni, I, 14. The 
twenty-second and twenty-third verses of 
the seventeenth chapter of Isaiah read 
as follows: "Thus saith the Lord, God, I 
will also take of the highest branch of the 
high cedar, and will set it; I will crop off 
from the top of his young twigs a tender 
one, and will plant it upon an high 
mountain and eminent in the mountain 
of the height of Israel will I plant it ; and 
it shall bring forth boughs and bear fruit, 
and be a goodly cedar; and under it 
shall dwell all fowl of every wing, in 
the shadow of its branches thereof shall 
they dwell." 

Apostle Orson Pratt, in his pamphlet 
on the Divine Authenticity of the Book 
of Mormon, applying this passage to the 
migration of the colony above men- 
tioned, says: "By reading this chapter it 
will be seen that the Jews were the 
"high cedar," that Zedekiah the king 
was the "highest branch," that the 
"tender one" cropped off from the top 
of his young twigs, was one of his sons, 
whom the Lord brought out and planted 
with his company upon the choice land 
of America, which he had given unto a 
remnant of the tribe of Joseph for an 
inheritance, in fulfilment of the blessings 
of Jacob and Moses upon the head of 
that tribe." 

This company of Mulek's settled, 
as is supposed, in the northern part of 
south America, and took upon them- 
selves the name of Zarahemla, and also 
applied that name to their country. 
They were discovered some centuries 
later by the Nephite king Mosiah in his 
northward wanderings, in search of an 
asylum where he and his people might 
rest secure from the persecutions of their 
brethren, the Lamanites. Having brought 
with them no records, the people of 
Zarahemla were in a state of gross ignor- 
ance and infidelity; and it was to them 
a source of great joy when they learned 
from king Mosiah that he was in posses- 
sion of the records of their forefathers, 
the Jews. 

Through the teachings of Mosiah they 



united with the church and afterwards 
chose him to be their king. Thus was 
brought about a union which was per- 
petual, resulting in a mixture on this 
continent of the blood of Judah and o 
Joseph. Book of Omni, 1, 19. 

During the succeeding centuries there 
remained but two kingdoms — the Ne- 
phites and the Lamanites; the latter 
sworn to eternal enmity; the former to 
unceasing vigilance. 

Through the preaching of the disciples 
of Christ (who had appeared to the peo- 
ple on this continent after His crucifix- 
ion,) the entire people, both Nephites and 
Lamanites were converted to the Chris- 
tian faith, the former still comprising the 
two families of Nephi and Mulek. They 
married and intermarried with each other, 
and lived during the next two centuries, 
in a state of perfect happiness and peace. 
In this way came the mixture of the 
blood of these three nations, of whom 
the American Indians are descendants. 
Hence they are not exclusively the seed 
of Joseph, but there is also among them 
a "remnant of the Jews." 

Zechariah Ballantyne. 

QUESTIONS TO ANSWER. 

i. Of what tribe of Israel was Ishmael 
who left Jerusalem with Lehi and com- 
pany? 

2. Was baptism required of the Church 
before the advent of the Savior upon the 
earth ? 

3. In the seventh chapter of Revela- 
tions, why is the tribe of Dan omitted 
and that of Manassah inserted? 

J. H. D. 

• 

"Rannie's English Constitution," is a 
small book on the history of that great 
instrument, showing its gradual growth 
from the remotest times. It is expressly 
designed for beginners in the study of 
constitutional history. It claims that 
constitutions, which are the result of 
the experience of ages, are accepted 
generally as the best, and shows that 
the English constitution having thus 
come into existence, is the standard and 
of modern constitutional governments. 
For sale at James Dwyer's, Salt Lake 
City. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




fiUSTATESWS DOUBLE ACTION 

Life-Lasting Hobbles 

AND 

Patent Nose Sachs. 



$50 
50 
25 



tyK GIVEN AWAY 
I J TO CUSTOMERS 

As follows: 

Concord Harness. 
Buggy Harness. 
Buccara Saddle. 

G. (/. GUST AVE SON. 

66 and 68 Second South St., Salt Lake City. 



ie is 

FURNITURE 




Hew and Second Hand, 
■V23JFLY CHEAP 



Call and see 



L P + SORENSOK k C0 M 

16 MAIN ST. 3 Doors South of Temple Block. 



rran Bros 



i! 



123, 125, 127, 129, 131 

Salt Lake City, 

FURNITURE 



, etc., 



i, etc. 

il U PH LSTERT ! 

Children's Carriages and Boys' Wagons. 



filial 




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SPECIALTY IN 



LADIES' and GENT'S 



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Id 



Lmil: 



NOVELTIES IN 



Neckwear, 

Handkerchiefs, 

Hosiery, 
Embroidery 

and Laces. 



VJSiftSfffl?/} Salt Lake Citv, Utah, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



H. B. CLAWSON, 

Dealer in Wool, Hides, Pelts, Furs, elc, Agri- 
cultural Implements of all kinds, Steel Hot- 
torn Kcnipeis, Victor Cane Mills, James Lef- 
fel's Turbine Wheels, Kconomy Portable Hay 
Press, Machine Extras, Spring Wagons, Kami 
Wagons, Hazard Powder, Glidden's Steel 
Baru Fence Wire, Farm and Church Hells, 
Kennedy's celebrated Sheep Dip. Goods not 
in Stock ordered on Commission when de- 
sired. 1212 and 1210 South Temple Street. 



ELIAS MORRIS, 

BUTE AND MONUMENTAL MASONS, 

PLASTER OF PARIS MANUFACTURERS, 

BUILDERS & CONTKACTOES; 



P. 0. Box, 1065, 



SALT LAKE CITY. 



DAVID JAMES, 

PLUMBER, TINNER, GAS AND STEAM 

FITTER. WATER PIPES 

LAID TO ORDER. 

DEALER IN PUMPS, HOSE AND IRON PIPES, 

AND SHEET LEAD. 

Office and Work Shop, 67 and 69 Main Street. 



No. 1237 

1st .South St., 



No. 62 
2nd South St, 



WHITE & SONS 



Proprietors 



Have always on hand the 

CHOICEST OF MEATS 

IN SEASON. 

PORK AND BEEF SAUSAGES, 

BOL'OG :tr ^. , 

And all kinds of . 
DEIED Zkdl E .A. I 1 ' S . 



All orders entrusted to our care 
promptly delivered. 



F. AU 

In their New 3 Story Building, 




•> 



124 and 126 East Temple Street. 



Announce that they now carry the Largest and Best Stocks mentioned in the various Depart- 
ments, ever shown west of Chicago. 

DRESS GOODS .-DEPARTMENT: 

Replete with Brocades, Silks, Satins, French Plaids, etc. Mostly of our own direct importa- 
tion from European Markets. 

DOMESTIC AND HOUSE FURNISHING DEP'T: 

Barnsley Table Damasks, Table and Piano Covers, Towels, Napkins, etc., etc. 

BOOT AND SHOE DEP'T: 

Ladies' and Children's Shoes and Slippers of the best make; Gents' and Boys' Boots, Gaiters 
and Alexis Ties. 

CLOAK AND SHAWL DEP'T: 
Cloaks and Shawls, Stylish and Cheap. French Ulsters, Satin Skirts and Knit Goods of every 
description. 

CLOTHING AND GENERAL FURNISHING DEP'T: 
Gents' and Children's Suits, Ulsters, Overcoats, White Shirts, Underwear, Hats, etc. 
HOSIERY AND FANCY GOODS DEP'T: 
Abounds in all novelties in Silk, Cashmere, Balbrigan and Domestic Hosiery, Laces, Fringes, 
Silk and Cambric Handkerchiefs. Corsets, thirty styles, etc. 

WHOLESALE BUYERS, 

Will find our Stock Larger than ever, better displayed and at prices to compete with Eastern or 
Western Markets. MILLINERY in all its branches, at Wholesale only. 



Orders from sit is and adjoining Territories and States Solicited, and honorably 
treatment Guaranteed. 

E\ ATJEEBACH 6z ZB^OTIEaCIEIR, 

ESTABLISHED 1864. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



»l , ' i 



^ PIAXTO0» #»©AKi_ 

^ Violins, Accoribis, Guitars, Flutes, Banjos, Brass nsttMtnts, Drums, ^~ ; 

^1 And all kinds of 

T/*\ Musical Instruments, Mnsie, Music Hooka, Strings and rilling*', 

\il AND ^ ™ 

Best and Cheapest at L_-J 

^J CARELESS' & GROXALL'S MUSIC HOUSE, ^ 

^^ 1234 First South Street, Salt Lake City. V^J 

I 1 SEISrr) TQ-R CATALOGUES. 9 -*• 

L,« p. J^ardy. P. fi. Hardy 

HARDY BROTHERS, 

successors to a. id. -yottsstg, 
dealers in 

Staple and Fancy km, Dry hols and lions. 

26 <Sc 2S ^Lv£a,in Street, Opposite 13. C. 1^/L. I. 



EA.GKL 



SALT LAKE CITY, 



1 

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Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Dry Ms, Groceries, Boots, Shoes, Hardware, Notions, " i! 



kinds of 



ise 



BEST HOUSE FOR FAMILY SUPPLIES. 



S. F. TEASDEL, 



P. 0. BOX. 352. 



East Temple Street 



AIN WAGONS. 

A full stock of theseCelebrated Wagons always on hand; they are the 
favorite and leading wagons in Utah. I keep a full stock of the 
Celebrated Oliver t!l»ille<1 Plows. Casssulay Sulky and 
Moline F*Bows, also a full line of Hardware and Wagon 
Material, the most complete selection to be found in the market. 
All kinds of 

Call on or address: HOWARD SEBBEE, Salt Lake and Ogden, Utah. 




ADVERTISEMENTS. 





C. H. 



JCSSEJ] 



^S7 



The Loading 



This Institution carries in its Immense Stock 
Complete Lines of 



GLASSWARE. 



CROCKERY. 



Mercantile 




Establishment 



CARPETS. 



BOOTS and SHOES. 



The Public are cordially invited to call and 
inspect our goods. 



jjpHTlj 



in the West, 



*>y SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH, f * 

'WILLIAM JENNINGS, Superintendent: 



0^ 

Suit 




CAPITAL, $200,000. 



WM. H. HOOPER, Presf., 



DIRECTORS: 

WILLIAM JENNINGS, 



SURPLUS, $125,000. 



H. S. ELDREDGE, Vicc-P,est. 



L. S. HILLS, Cashier, FERAMORZ LITTLE, JOHN SHARP, N. GROE5BECK. 



Office akc Yard. 
Corner East of Theatre. 

R. WARNOCK 



DEALS IN 

Newton Farm Wagons. 

Johnson Wrought Iron Mowers, Bear Cut. 

Johnson Changeable Sj)eed Moivers, Rear 

Cut. 
Johnson Changeable Speed Mowers, Front 

Cut. 
Johnson Wrought Iron Reaper and Mower 

Combined. 
Johnson Continental Reaper, Gne Wheel. 
Weir Sulky and Hand Plows all sizes. 
Steel and Cast Iron Shares for all sizes of 

Ploius. 
Sulky Hay Rakes different kinds. 
Diamond Cultivators, Weir Harroivs, and 

other Agricultural Implements. 

All Implements warranted to be first 
class. • 

Send for price lists and circulars. 



VOICE * WARNING, 



AND ALL THE 



Publications of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, 



FOR SALE BY 



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insr 

SOLID 

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OF 



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$3 00 A PAIR. 




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JENNINGS & S 



HAVE RECEIVED FOR THE 

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OF 




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